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Removing of biogenic amines of the wine by selective adsorption on functionalized porous solids

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - AMINE_REMOVAL (Removing of biogenic amines of the wine by selective adsorption on functionalized porous solids)

Reporting period: 2016-06-01 to 2018-05-31

The presence of biogenic amines (BA) (histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, etc.) is usual in fermented beverages such as wine. Due to the toxicity and allergic effects of these BA, some countries have established recommendations concerning the maximum levels allowed in wines. The production of BA during the winemaking is difficult to control (specifically during malolactic fermentation), and their removal from finished wines is a great challenge considering the complexity of the wine chemical composition and its organoleptic characteristics. In this sense, an interesting approach could be the retention on functionalized solid materials, however it should be avoided the modification of the chemical composition related with the wine organoleptic quality.

The main objective of this study was to synthesize functionalized materials that allow the selective removal of BA from wines evaluating also the effect on other wines components and on the organoleptic characteristics.
The execution of Amine_Removal was carried out thought a multidisciplinary approach that cover from the synthesis of the functionalized materials to the evaluation of its effectiveness for the BA removal in different types of wines and the study of collateral effects on other wine components and at sensory level. Thus, the first works were focused on the selection of the functionalization (one of several types of functional groups) and structure type of the solids. Taking account that BA amines are protonated at the pH of the wine, three types of functional groups capable to cations exchange and several silica structures (amorphous, mesoporous, macroporous and lamellar) were evaluated. Secondly, the materials with the better effectiveness for the BA removal in model media were tested in red and white wines evaluating the capacity of BA removal and the effects on other wine parameters and components. Thirdly, the most suitable material (considering the effectiveness on the BA removal compatible with a minimum effect on other wine components) was chosen for a deep study of the dose effect on the BA removal and on polyphenol and volatile compounds profiles. In addition, the effects on organoleptic parameters, aroma and color, were also evaluated (in red wines). Finally, a regeneration method for the functionalized material was set-up, and all practical aspect of the treatment of wines was studied.

Amine_Removal has allowed the obtaining of a solid material based on functionalized silica that allows the partial removal of histamine, spermidine, spermine, cadaverine and putrescine from wines. For the application of the treatment in batch, solid dose should be adapted taking account the type of wine, initial contents of BA and the required removal considering the legal (or suggested) limits for the BA content. On the other hand, the effects on wine parameters and components were, in general, not significant or not negative for the organoleptic characteristics, except for some ethyl esters related with fruity aroma. In this sense, the effects on aroma depended on the wine type. Thus, in the case complex wines (aged on wood), the deviation of the aroma produced by the esters could be masked by the global wine aroma.
Amine_Removal represents the most complete study carried out until now with this approach covering from the development of the material to the application. The obtained results included not only the effectiveness on the BA removal, but also a deep study of the possible chemical/organoleptic effects on the wine that could affect on its quality. In addition, the project also studied the practical aspects, being a relatively simple treatment applicable in wineries without any additional equipment.