Periodic Reporting for period 1 - R2R-3G (Towards Roll-to-Roll Production of Third Generation Solar Cells)
Reporting period: 2016-06-01 to 2018-05-31
Europe is working to invert this situation with programs like EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation with the challenge “Secure, Clean and Efficient Energy” in Horizon 2020 program. It is accepted that the energy solution will be a combination of technologies based on fossil fuels with a progressive increment in the use of renewable energies. The photovoltaic technology will be an important part of a multi-component solution due to the fact that the solar energy is the biggest renewable source reaching the Earth crust with a total energy amount of 23.000 TW/year. Also, this technology can be implemented in urban areas such as roofs, building surfaces or other areas as fallow land, deserts, etc. This makes photovoltaic technology suitable for the development of smart cities.
The photovoltaic technologies have achieved important advances in the efficiency-cost ratio but they still need some more effort to be competitive in the actual energetic market. The scientific community is tackling this challenge with different approaches. Current photovoltaic technologies based on Silicon wafer - also called first generation - require more effort for increasing the efficiency/cost ratio of the solar panel. The actual tendencies value different alternatives. Some of these alternatives are based on: 1) the use of thin films - also called second generation - using Earth crust abundant materials for the active layer; 2) less expensive manufacturing protocols based on Roll-to-Roll processes and/or 3) the use of new solar cell architectures such as nanowires (NWs) (also called third generation), photonic crystals, monolayers, etc. The milestone of the photovoltaic technologies should be related with a mixture of these tendencies. The overall objective of R2R-3G project is to combine two of these approaches based on the use of highly efficient NWs solar technology and vacuum Roll-to-Roll processes.
Another important contribution of my work to the field of NW solar cells is the identification of the mechanisms that allow the growth of NWs with high aspect ratio and good homogeneity using metal organic chemical vapour deposition. In that work, I demonstrated the influence of the dopant concentration in order to increase the homogeneity of the NW array. Besides, I showed that this fabrication method for solar cells can be extended to other systems that can benefit from these results. In addition, I successfully developed a novel protocol to make NWs on cheap substrates avoiding the epitaxial growth. This preliminary work has proven to be important for the cost reduction of the fabrication of NWs devices.
Up to date, the published results derived from this project have been disseminated in the following peer-reviewed articles, meetings and conferences:
L. Francaviglia et al, 2018, 10.1021/acs.na006Eolett.7b05402
A. Dorodnyy et al, 2018, 10.1109/JSTQE.2018.2840339
- P. Romero-Gomez. LMPV Symposium June 2016. Light trapping in semitransparent organic solar cells. FOM institute Amolf, Amsterdam.
- D. Mikulik, P. Romero-Gomez, M. Ricci, G. Tutuncuoglu, F. Matteini, J. Vukajlovic, N. Vulic, M. Friedl, E. Alarcon-Llado, B. Dwir, A. Rudra, E. Kapon and A. Fontcuberta i Morral “From single NW solar cell to large scale NW array solar cell development through Conductive AFM analysis”, MRS spring, Phoenix, USA, 2017.
- D. Mikulik, M. Ricci, P. Romero-Gomez, G. Tutuncuoglu, F. Matteini, J. Vukajlovic, E. Alarcon-Llado and A. Fontcuberta i Morral “Single nanowire current‐voltage measurements by C-AFM and its effect on the output characteristics of solar cells based on nanowire ensembles” EMC17, South Bend, USA, 2017.
- A. Rudra, D. Mikulik, P. Romero Gomez, B. Dwir, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, E. Kapon “High temperature selective area metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy of GaAs nanowires using N2 as carrier gas” ORAL, EW-MOVPE17, France, 2017.
- P. Romero Gomez, D. Mikulik, G. Tutuncuoglu, H. Potts, M. Friedl, A. Fontcuberta i Morral “Large Scale Nanowire Solar Cells” Poster, Congrès Photovoltaïque National, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2017.
- P. Romero Gomez, D. Mikulik, G. Tutuncuoglu, H. Potts, M. Friedl, J. Vukajlovik-Plestina, B. Dwir, A. Rudra, E. Kapon, A. Fontcuberta i Morral “Robust nanowire arrays for new generation solar cells” Nanowire Week, Lund Sweden, 2017.
- D. Mikulik, M. Mintairov, V. Evstropov, P. Romero-Gomez, M. Shvarts, A. Fontcuberta I Morral “Intrinsic device properties of nanowire based solar cells using intensity-dependent measurements up to 1000 suns” ICPS, Montpellier, France, 2018.
- D Mikulik, Andrew C. Meng, Riad Berrazouane, P. Romero-Gomez, K. Tang, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, P. C. Mcintyre “Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy method to analyse interface states in semiconductor-oxide high-aspect-ratio structures” ICPS, Montpellier, France, 2018.