Periodic Reporting for period 4 - H2ME 2 (Hydrogen Mobility Europe 2)
Reporting period: 2019-07-01 to 2020-12-31
H2ME 2 is the natural successor to the H2ME 1 project. Taken in conjunction, the projects are the most ambitious coordinated hydrogen deployment project attempted globally.
The increased scale of this deployment under H2ME 2 will allow the consortium to:
•Deploy over 1100 new FCEVS across a range of platforms, with increased participation from European car manufacturers allowing for an increased choice of vehicles – trebling the existing fuel cell fleet in Europe
•Test 20 new HRS rigorously, aiming for high level of utilisation (with some exceeding 50%) using the large FCEVS deployment. This will test the HRS to a much greater extent than has been possible in previous projects
•Establish the conditions for the hydrogen mobility sector to support the wider European energy system via electrolytic hydrogen production, by deploying 10 electrolyser-HRS and analysing a subset of these demonstrating the acquisition of real revenues from provision of energy services
•Provide the evidence base that a wide range of FCEVs and HRS are technically and commercially ready for widespread market introduction
• 9 HRS commissioned in total. Overall, the H2ME initiative has contributed to deploying 37 HRS in 8 countries to date.
• HRS have now dispensed >165t of H2, incl. 121t (34.8t from H2ME2) in P4, in 77100 refuelling events. 4 HRS have dispensed >5000kg. These stations are in locations where FCEV taxis are deployed, demonstrating the importance of high-use fleet in promoting business case. The project-average HRS availability is currently 95.4%. Many of the individual HRS are exceeding the availability target of 98%.
• 321 FCEVs were deployed to date. Overall, the H2ME initiative has deployed 632 FCEVs in 10 countries to date. FCEVs have reported >16m km driven since 2015 (8.77m in P4) incl. 6.27m km driven for the H2ME2.
• > 30 reports were produced by the cross-cutting WPs. All public deliverables are available on the project website.
• The project has attended a series of events and organised events, incl. roundtables (in Hamburg, Oct 2019 and Online, Nov 2020) and a European rally reaching Hamburg in Oct 2019.
Key findings of the project include:
• Installation of HRS has revealed significant differences in permitting times, despite the commonality of regulations, codes and standards across the EU. The primary origin of the difference in permitting times lies in the non-uniform approach to permitting adopted in relatively centralised countries compared to decentralised countries. In countries with decentralised structures, such as France and Germany, opening a station in a new region generally means starting the process of engagement with the authorities each time, whereas in relatively centralised countries ‘permitting by example’ reduces the permitting times of subsequent installations. However, as the HRS network expands, HRS permitting times may not fall uniformly as inevitably this expansion will involve HRs installation in constrained locations or locations involving complex stakeholder liaison.
•The project-average HRS availability is currently 95.4%, an increase from 93% at the end of P3. The reliability of individual HRS increases after initial teething problems, reaching a steady state as problems are ironed out. This is a well-known phenomenon in reliability engineering called the bathtub curve. Many of the individual HRS are exceeding the target of 98%. The analysis conducted on downtime reveals that compressors, dispensers and precooling are the main sources of downtime.
• The project average fuel efficiency for FCEVs is 84 km/kgH2 (1.2 kgH2/100 km). Driving style and use case can have a marked effect on efficiency, e.g aggressiveness of the driving style for a given individual and use case.
• An analysis of WTW emissions of vehicles in Denmark, France and Germany has shown that vehicles have lower emissions than conventional vehicles. In comparing emissions to electric vehicles, the use of renewable hydrogen is crucial in obtaining comparable WTW emissions to battery electric equivalents.
• The majority of fleet operators and drivers have reported positive overall experiences with FCEVs, based on the vehicle performance and refuelling time meeting the operational needs. A need for improvement was identified regarding the purchase price, number of models available, and in some cases restrictions on underground parking. Some fleet operators and drivers reported dissatisfaction with the limited number of HRS, reflecting the early stage of the commercial roll-out. Although many users have expressed that HRS reliability requires improvement, some fleet operators have noticed steady improvements to the reliability of stations over time, particularly after the initial teething phase.
• Industry, SMEs and University collaboration: 49 organisations
• Gather evidence for new deployment and business cases: Focus on co-location of demand and HRS usage for different vehicles type; for small and large fleet (>100)
• Development of new technologies and services: Maintenance strategies for HRS; Payment by card and app increasingly common; Fleet uses validated for taxi and carsharing
• Building a rich dataset valuable for Europe; Achieved since 2016 (as of Q1 2020): 16 million km driven and 165t of H2 distributed (77100 refuelling events)
• Deployment of new FCEV models and HRS technologies: Mercedes-Benz GLC, Hyundai Nexo, Renault Kangoo Z.E. Hydrogen (by Symbio) and Toyota Mirai
• Testing in real work conditions: Product ready for commercialisation; Up to 594 km of driving range – availability close to 100% – reached 100km/1kg H2; Max HRS load reaching 45% - Average availability 96% (best performing HRS have been available for 99.9% of the year) - Stations are able to deliver fast fills back-to-back. The average time spent stopped at the refueller is typically under 5 mins
High visibility first of a kind initiative: Largest European deployment to date for hydrogen mobility: 37 HRS and 630 FCEVS have been deployed in 10 countries; Largest European deployment to date for hydrogen mobility: 100 Fuel Cell taxis in Paris, 50 Fuel Cell Range Extender vans; First deployment with European vehicles OEMs: 1st deployment for Mercedes and Symbio; H2ME vehicles took a 6000km road trip through Europe showing the advantages of the technology
Knowledge development: Fostering additional activities in existing regions and for partners: Most advanced coalitions in Germany, Scandinavia, France and the UK collaborating with observer coalitions becoming increasingly active (Benelux, Austria and Italy); Dissemination of results to all relevant stakeholders with > 40 articles and 4 newsletters published, social media presence, 2 conferences and 4 roundtables held and 15 vehicles hand-over and 17 HRS openings and “ride and drives” events >40 national events and presentations at conferences