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Sustainable Processes and Optimized Technologies for Industrially Efficient Water Usage

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - SPOTVIEW (Sustainable Processes and Optimized Technologies for Industrially Efficient Water Usage)

Reporting period: 2018-04-03 to 2019-10-02

The volume of freshwater used by the manufacturing process industries represents more than 25 billion m3 per year and accounts for 10% of total water consumption in Europe. Steel, Paper and Dairy sectors represent in total 36% of the water uptake from EU industries (9 billion cubic meters), and contribute to 18% of industrial eqCO2 emissions. The optimization of resources (including water, energy, raw materials and additives) is a key issue in maintaining competitive, sustainable production, while preserving natural environment and minimizing impact on global warming.

The objective of the SpotView project is to develop and demonstrate innovative, sustainable and efficient processes aimed at:
• Recovering and recycling valuable substances and energy (heat, biogas) from process water;
• Reusing treated water to reduce discharges;
• Substituting freshwater with alternative water sources (rainwater, seawater, treated effluent).

During the project, a total of 14 existing and new technologies have been assessed in simulated or operational environments to develop 9 new water management practices in the three industrial sectors. Up to 7 technology demonstrators will be selected, for deployment in real industrial environments. The processes and technologies implemented will be evaluated in terms of the environmental impacts and benefits generated by achieving the SpotView targets (20% to 90% reduction in water usage, wastewater emissions, chemicals and energy use).
Technical tasks were carried out to characterize water/effluents streams and quality requirements and to assess water management strategies and treatement technologies in the three industrial sectors.

WP2 was devoted to water circuit characterization at industrial sites, and to technology components trials in realistic environment:
• Selective separation processes and technologies for substances recovery (Dairy and Paper industries)
• Close loop recycling and alternative water sources (all 3 sectors)
• Alternative process chemistry and disinfection techniques (Dairy, Paper)
• Alternative cooling/ heating technologies (Steel, Paper)

WP3 was devoted to the assessment of alternative water management scenarios by simulation based on digital models of water circuits from demonstration sites of the 3 sectors.
• Selected scenario simulation for process and cooling water reuse in the P&P industry
• Technology combinations and selected scenario simulation in the dairy industry
• Technology combinations and selected scenario simulation in the steel industry
• Simulation of the recovery of valuable substances in stock preparation
• Selected scenario simulation for WWTP effluent reuse in the P&P industry

Design and building of water treatment technology prototypes were also achieved during WP3.
• Design of the MBR pilot plant for the dairy industry
• Prototype for the recovery of valuable substances in papermaking processes

Pilot trials in industrial environment started in 2018 (WP4) and will be achieved by the end of 2019 to demonstrate the exploitability of the results
• Demonstration for water reuse in steel industry: pilot trials with selected techniques for solid and salt removal in industrial environment
• Biocontrol proof of concept at paper mill site: concentration of salts and by membrane technology and electrolysis to produce biocides
• Demonstration of extraction technologies in paper industry: pilot trials of technology chain for valuable organic substance separation and recovery
• Pilot plant demonstration in dairy industry environment of a membrane based process for selective separation of proteins and fats from CIP water streams and water reuse in
• Pilot plant demonstration of Anaerobic/aerobic MBR in real operational environment for wastewater treatment and reuse in dairy industry

Technical and environmental performances reached by all technology components for each application are used in WP5 for assessment and comparison with baseline situation. Key Performance Indicators were defined for each application and used to assess the techno-economic and environmental impacts of the project results after technology demonstration.

Exploitable results are used during WP6 for developing realistic business scenario and for project outreach during workshops organized with other SPIRE and H2020 projects.
Among the new separation and treatment technologies assessed during pilot scale trials in industrial environments, the following achievements can be already highlighted:

For application in Dairy industry:
• The pilot unit results confirm that submerged ultrafiltration (sUF) is characterized by low fouling tendency, high selectivity and low energy consumption. The effect of temperature in the filtration process is crucial. In particular, it is observed that higher temperature (in the range of 40-50°C) results in lower fouling and higher concentration factors. sUF technology can contribute to the SpotView target of 30% reduction in wastewater treatment
• Performance of the anaerobic/aerobic MBR pilot plant is satisfactory for the treatment and valorization of dairy effluents: the resulting effluent from the final stage of the aerobic MBR is of high quality; its characteristics permit its reuse/recycling for water conservation; the quality of the produced biogas is more than satisfactory.

For application in Paper Industry:
• Valmet Ultrafiltration CR1010/30T prototype installed in tissue mill showed effective process water purification and fresh water reduction. Micro-sticky (main cause of wire and felts plugging with detrimental impact on paper machine productivity) reduction yield is about 95%.
• BioControl prototype trials performed in tissue mill showed that the concept requires preliminary filtration and concentration of chlorides for exploitability. Biocide efficiently with 5 ppm dosage reduced microbial activity by 2 Log.
• Modelling of effluent recycling scenario with heat recovery integration showed potential reduction of fresh water uptake from 20 to 50% with efficient control on process water COD, temperature and conductivity.
• Starch extraction yield during pilot trials with mixed industrial recovered paper and board is significantly lower than with model corrugated board. Extraction yield is not sufficient to improve process water quality and reduce fresh water intake.

For application in Steel Industry:
• RO is suitable for water reclamation after hybrid flotation with microfiltration: water quality obtained is better than requirements: < 20 µS/cm with energy demand 1.4 kWh/m3
• Combining hybrid flotation with 5 µm and AC filter before CDI produced reuseable water with stable and higher quality than requirements regarding the water composition): conductivity removal 94%; Cl- content reduction 94-97%; Energy demand 1.2 kWh/m3

For Heat recovery from low temperature effluent stream (<60°C):
• New application of direct evaporation of of low pressure steam from waste water into Qpinch proprietary PPA/PA chemical heat pump system can be expected in multiple waste water cooling systems
• New method was validated to dry exhaust air with Qpinch heat pump.
SpotView Project overview