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Mild Hybrid cOst effective solutions for a fast Market penetratiON

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - THOMSON (Mild Hybrid cOst effective solutions for a fast Market penetratiON)

Reporting period: 2016-10-01 to 2018-03-31

Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) have reached today a high level of maturity, with an outstanding competitiveness with regard to the flexibility in use, being able to support a multiple combination of vehicle mission profiles. Nevertheless, to further and significantly reduce CO2 and pollutant emissions for post 2020 standards, the electrification of the powertrain will be a fundamental step, with a more important role (and beneficial effect) especially in high traffic density conditions in large urban agglomerations, where noxious pollutant emissions (especially NOx and nanoparticles) are most sensitive. In this context the THOMSON project addresses very precise and consistent objectives to support a quick transition towards high efficient, cleaner and affordable electrified powertrains focusing on the 48V architectures. Approaches developed in the THOMSON project will demonstrate how the right combination of advanced engine downsizing/turbocharging technologies, coupled with a 48V motor-generator system, can provide the most cost effective solution for a rapid electrification through conventional vehicles. Main scientific and technological objectives of the project may be described as follows:
• Development of two advanced high efficient and cost competitive 48V systems: both systems will target a power in the range between 10 and 12 kW able to provide driving and energy functionalities similar to the ones normally related to higher voltage system.
• Development of two advanced high efficient and clean hybrid powertrains, sized to cover a wide range of vehicle applications, from B up to D-E segment, including also Multipurpose vehicles.
• Development of new simulation models to support the best use of the on-board energy and to optimize the thermal flow distribution
• Development of innovative and cost-effective solutions for engine boosting
• Analysis and development of advanced after-treatment technologies
• Two demonstrator vehicles will be developed integrating all the technical solutions issued from the project activities.
The following main results have been achieved in the first 18 months of the project:
• Advanced cost effective boosting system: 1D engine system simulations were completed to provide information for turbocharger and electrically driven compressor design. The chosen designs were then manufactured as prototype hardware for the engine and further 1D and 3D simulations have been conducted to improve the understanding of the airpath system. Topics that are being researched are the control of electric and exhaust energy balance in the air path, the transient control of emissions or the impact of air duct packaging on airpath performance. A new experimental test facility has been created to evaluate the transient performance of complete boosting systems.
• Emission, energy and thermal management: development of a high-fidelity total vehicle model, representing both hybrid demonstrator vehicles. The accuracy of the models has been assured through comparison to hardware tests of prototype components, which have been created specifically for this work. The models have been used to perform optimisation studies to define the system level hybrid strategy, with a particular focus on the energy management, and to generate benefit / cost ratios for the vehicles.
• Diesel cost effective hybridization technologies: the 1,6L 4cylinder diesel engine has been designed integrating several new technologies:
BSG with 48v architecture
New close-coupled aftertreatment system, which includes DOC, SCR on Filter (SCRF) with NH3 / AdBlue dosing and the 48V electrically Heated Catalyst (eHC)
Fully new boosting system with improved VGT TurboCharger and eBooster
Improved EGR system with cooled High Pressure and Low Pressure EGRs and Water Charge Air Cooler with secondary low temperature coolant circuit.
Components have been procured, installed on the engine and preliminary tested in full load conditions.
Dedicated control strategies to manage new technologies have been defined and implemented with rapid prototyping tools. Finally the Fiat 500X 1,6L demo vehicle has been realized and is now ready to start the calibration activity.
• GTDI CNG Engine: the new 1.0 TC GDI CNG engine has been designed, build up and preliminary tested; engine air-path components, including matching analysis to comply with power and torque-targets, successfully done; Vehicle package, including electrical architecture, battery package and CNG reservoir system, finished successfully with a special focus on feasibility. Newly developed Variable-Inlet device in front of turbochargers compressor build and assembled on the engine, functional testing on a fired engine ongoing. E-Compressor to fill in low-end-torque developed, build, attached on the engine and in operation on the engine. P2-off axis module designed, build and functional testing completed successfully.
Many new approaches carried out in this project will be fostering the advanced development of vehicle powertrains in Europe outside the conventional or pure-electrically propelled vehicles, making low CO2 emissions combined with fun-to-drive attractive and affordable for a wider range of customers: starting from the novel inner insulated turbocharger technology, investigated to improve the performance of the boosting system and reduce power requirements of the electrical system, passing through the development of a comprehensive vehicle simulation model up to the development of the two demonstrator vehicles.
The Diesel Mild Hybridization will be investigated to define a cost-effective solution with the goal to further improve the already low Fuel Consumption and CO2 emission figure and, at the same time, to help the achievement of very low NOx emission in almost all working and ambient conditions. A FIAT 500 X 1.6 l demo vehicle will be realized integrating several innovative technologies to demonstrate that, using a holistic approach including electrified engine-subsystems, the 48V system can strongly support the improvement of Fuel Consumption vs. emissions trade-off, reducing the NOx production at engine level and, at the same time, improving the aftertreatment efficiency in critical condition such as the urban driving with cold ambient. The second vehicle will be a CNG Ford Grand-C-max with a similar CO2 level as a comparable Diesel engine and if this is achieved while getting the driveability and fun-to-drive of the next higher gasoline engine EcoBoost derivative whilst not compromising fuel economy and at a comparable cost situation versus convention Diesel engine equipped powertrains, the effective combination of CNG-DI with 48V mild hybrid approaches can reveal as an attractive alternative to usual Diesel engine customers. This is supported by use-cases, enabled by the P2-off axis hybrid module, allowing not only efficient driving by supporting appropriate engine-off-on, it, furthermore, also opens the door to new use-cases in the future, provided by electric manoeuvring within the capability of the installed 48V system. In combination, low CO2 emissions combined with smart developed unique use-cases for the customer can attract new customers and can reveal as an attractive alternative to Diesel engine equipped vehicles, not only in the passenger car segment, but as well in the commercial vehicle segment.
New air path system test facility
Electrically driven compressor