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Advanced Materials technologies to QUADRUPLE the Concentrated Solar Thermal current POWER GENERATION

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - IN-POWER (Advanced Materials technologies to QUADRUPLE the Concentrated Solar Thermal current POWER GENERATION)

Reporting period: 2018-07-01 to 2019-12-31

International studies indicate that 50% of CAPEX goes to solar and thermal conversion fields and OPEX represents around 20% of total costs. IN-POWER takes these hypotheses as a baseline of its research, focusing on reducing these costs, improving at same time the annual energy production of the CSP technologies. IN-POWER aims at developing and integrating new innovative material consisting of: 1.High reflectance, tailored shapes, self-healing and anti-soiling coated, light glass-free smart mirrors. 2.Optimized and lighter mirror support structure. 3.High-operational-temperature absorber coating in new vacuum-free-designed lineal receiver. 4.Novel modular solar field architecture and design achievable by these new components. Having the identical low associated environmental impact, this promising technology is expected to decrease the land use by four-time. 5.High-operating-temperature thermal storage materials (TES) that will guarantee up to three-time increase in thermal capacity respect to standard TES, depending on Heat Transfer Fluid, also leading to the reduction of thermal storage system size. 6.Validating these novel functional materials and new manufacturing processes and will guarantee decrease in Levelised Cost of Electricity below 0.10 €/KWh beyond 2020 by validating these technologies in Lineal Fresnel Collector and Parabolic through Collector pilot plants under 2100-2700 kWh/(m²a).
The new multicoated polymeric mirror in development. NEMATIA works on mirror design (100cm2 and up-scaled 0.50mx0.25m) and tools for its fabrication. The up-scaled manufacture process is in progress. GEOCAD took these designs and prepared the tools and moulds for the injection of polymeric substrate. Several series of mirrors have been produced and coated by successive layers: reflective, self-healing, and antisoiling layers. KOLZER developed tools for coating the mirrors with suitable homogeneity for high reflective KPI. VOTTELER and LEITAT worked in upgrading its self-healing coating increasing antisoiling properties. LEITAT is developing a new antisoiling for mild environmental conditions. Currently, more than 800 upscaled mirrors are being produced. They will be integrated in MAGTEL’s Lineal Fresnel (LFC) pilot plant.

TEKNIKER looked for optimal multilayer configuration for absorber coating. A stack of layers comprising IR reflecting mirror, absorber and antireflective layer is defined, and different combinations of these materials have been studied. Values of absorbance accomplished the expected target and an impressive reduction in emissivity is achieved. 3 types of absorber coatings have been developed, 2 for evacuated tubes operating at high and medium temperature regime. A new absorber coating for air operation and high temperature is in progress. In the first 2 cases, TEKNIKER is manufacturing dozens of evacuated tubes which will be integrated in facilities of PTC and LFC pilot.

The new TES materials and systems are developed. FERTIBERIA works on a new formulation of eutectic mixture, which have been studied and well modelled. 2 types of eutectic mixture, ternary and quartenary formulation have been selected and thermal capacity accomplished targeted KPIs. CEA has been working in encapsulated phase change materials that can be combined with eutectic mixture in a thermocline design. Using the properties of the new materials, CEA is modelling 2 types of TES systems. The models have been validated and CEA is working with new geometries and materials. In parallel, the consortium is working in optimizing the solar field of CSP plants. A new light weight composite, selected by LEITAT, has been defined to make a new design for structures. Different modellings were done, looking for a right composition that accomplishes mechanical properties. Mechanical properties are measured and validation of the model is performed. MAGTEL designs a PV loop for validating the behaviour of this component in a solar field. A new design of solar field is ongoing, considering the material properties of the mirror. NEMATIA worked in several optimization form first design, using result coming from optical and thermal simulation done by LEITAT. The model is under validation with PTC geometry and IN-POWER materials. Finally, testing in laboratory begun for small mirror, PCM and anticorrosive encapsulant and antisoiling for glassy PV modules, following ENEA’s planning. Facilities for validation in real environment are ready: LFC pilot plant (scaled up mirror and evacuated tubes) at MAGTEL, PTC loop (for evacuated tubes) at ENEA, degradation of PCM (Durassel facility) at CEA, MOSE for eutectic mixture thermal cycling at ENEA, LHASA for thermal cycling at CEA, stationary PV sites for antisoiling coated polymeric mirrors at LEITAT (Spain and Chile). 3 types of assessment are done: economical, environmental and standardization. First definition of model LCOE calculation is done by MAGTEL. Cost of reference materials and starting LCOE are inputs for this model. These values have been monitored to achieve real reduced costs. CAPEX calculation is in progress in all new developments. An environmental LCA of baseline of CSP plants defined with reference materials and components is done and with IN-POWER components is in progress.
IN-POWER mirror activities achieve a 30% of weight reduction (compare with glassy mirror), a reflectivity close to expected KPI. The consortium started from 5x5cm mirrors and has demonstrated the scalability of this component up to 0,50x0,25m with optical performance close to KPIs. Testing under simulated conditions indicate that developed mirrors are robust under corrosion, scratch test and cleaning process. High performance advanced cermet absorber coatings have been achieved with high absorbance and very low emissivity. 3 types of advanced coatings have been developed and the consortium is working in manufacturing several evacuated tubes for validation in 2 pilot plants with different operation regime. 2 thermal storage eutectic salts have been developed, working from 113 to 550ºC temperature range and between 208 and 575ºC. Tons of developed salts are manufactured and ready to be tested in facilities for evaluate their performance under simulated thermal cycling. 2 thermal storage systems have been studied; 1 with 2 tanks and thermocline tank, which validated models. Modelling of these systems are in progress with reference and IN-POWER materials. PCM has been selected for combine with eutectic mixture in different storage configuration. Encapsulant material for selected PCM has been developed to avoid potential chemical reaction with eutectic mixture. Activities regarding sustainability, standardization, manufacturing process assessment are considered. Reflective coating has been developed considering minimizing the use of Ag as metallic reflective layers. Antisoiling properties of polymeric mirror showed a reduction of 40% of dust deposition, following an approach avoiding toxic solvents. Absorber coating for air operation also could be a good solution because does not require vacuum system support. In this case, the consortium is studying the optimal range of temperature operation regime. IN-POWER development use very known manufacture processes overpassing potential industrial barriers.
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IN-POWER Lineal Fresnel Pilot plant at MAGTEL, Seville