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Accelerator Research and Innovation for European Science and Society

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - ARIES (Accelerator Research and Innovation for European Science and Society)

Reporting period: 2018-11-01 to 2020-04-30

Particle accelerators are engines of discovery for physics and unique tools contributing to research and applications in health, life sciences, energy, materials, environment. ARIES aims to develop and further improve the European particle accelerators through new concepts and technologies, to provide access to top-class accelerator test infrastructures, enlarge and further integrate the accelerator community, develop a strategy for sustainable accelerator research and transfer the benefits of accelerator technologies to science and society.
After 3 years, ARIES is well established with a community of about 400 researchers from academia and industry. A similar number of external researchers take part to ARIES workshops and about 1000 others are informed of the ARIES activities.
Within the Communication and Outreach Network, the project website, intranet, posters and 29 news articles were prepared and a video with more than 100000 views. The first lectures of the ARIES Open Online Course in accelerator science are available in test mode.
The Network on Accelerator Applications completed a review of applications of low energy electron beams and focused the investigations on novel environmental applications of electron beam accelerators. 3 new technologies have emerged: the treatment of marine ballast water to avoid the spread of invasive organisms, the treatment of the exhaust gases from marine diesel engines to reduce pollution and treatment of sewage sludge to increase bio-gas production and reduce pollution. Accelerator options to produce radioisotopes for medicine were also explored.
Within the Network on Efficient Energy management, a first prototype of a novel high-efficiency RF power source was analysed and a stand for testing of pulsed beam transport magnets with energy recovery designed.
The Network on Novel Accelerators produced a strategic document on novel high-gradient accelerator technologies for the Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics and organised the EAAC workshop and a School on High Gradient Wakefield Accelerators attracting 70 students from 26 countries.
The Accelerator Performance and Concepts Network organized 24 workshops, covering a large spectrum of accelerator technology, design and operation, in pursuit of raising the TRLs in key areas linked to accelerator performance. The results are already helping improve the performance of modern accelerator facilities for scientific, medical and material-science applications and the design of future high-energy accelerators.
The Ultra-low Emittance Network supported recent developments in the synchrotron light accelerator community by organizing workshops on injection systems, diagnostics and novel technologies for the ultra-low emittance rings. Initial beam experiments have taken place on 2 test accelerators.
The Advanced Diagnostics Network organised 10 workshops on beam detection and optimisation, beam position acquisition and feedback, scintillation screens and optical technology and related to the new generation of synchrotron light sources.
The TA activities resulted in 13775 access units and supported 233 users. The demand for some facilities was very high, in particular in the field of testing material behaviour under extreme beam conditions at HiRadMat and in performing experiments on the electron storage ring KARA at KIT. New state-of-the-art accelerator test facilities came to operation during the project and already accepted the first external users via the TA scheme: FLUTE, HNOSS, XBOX and LULAL.
The Promoting Innovation JRA supported 4 PoC grants to support R&D and demonstration of innovative accelerator technologies for applications in environment, manufacturing, material science and diagnostics. One of them organised the first demonstration of applying a low-energy electron accelerator to remove pollutants (SO2, NOx and particulate matters) from the exhaust gases produced by maritime diesels, which constitute one of the main contribution to worldwide pollution. Within a set of co-innovation activities with industry, a first batch of hot-pressed MgB2 samples were produced with additive manufacturing for use in extreme thermal environments. The initial High-Temperature Superconductor cable lengths produced for ARIES present the world record for engineering current density at a reduced production cost.
The JRA on superconducting thin film deposition produced, polished, deposited and characterised 4 samples of superconducting coated material using different techniques for surface polishing. New laser-based techniques were tested and discussed.
The JRA on production of electron beams for collimation and focusing manufactured and commissioned a prototype electron gun equipped with a custom-made power modulator. First low intensity tests were performed successfully. A dedicated test stand was constructed and commissioned at CERN.
The JRA on accelerator materials for extreme thermal management completed 3 irradiations to study the behaviour of advanced materials when submitted to intense ion irradiation. Investigations allowed to identify patterns to assess the effects of long-term exposure to energetic protons in high energy accelerators and for a wide range of applications of ion- and photoluminescence. After the successful industrialization of the Molybdenum Carbide–Graphite composite (MoGr) a new composite Chromium – Graphite was conceived to retain most of MoGr outstanding properties at a reduced cost.
The JRA exploring very high gradient acceleration techniques analysed different approaches in the field of laser acceleration. Simulations were used to identify a new regime for superradiant radiation from spiralling electron bunches in plasmas, and investigations were performed to explore alternative technical paths towards generation of high spectral charge density electron beams. First damage tests on dielectric nozzles gave promising results.
The ARIES Networks have already brought significant results for the preparation of alternative future high-energy projects that received a high priority in the new Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, like the muon-collider scheme intended to reach high collision energies to explore new physics keeping a limited environmental impact. New schemes for improving synchrotron light sources and for increasing energy efficiency of accelerators appeared, together with new accelerator applications in the environmental field. Particularly successful was the development of a novel scheme for reducing pollution of maritime traffic by cleaning ship exhaust gases using a particle beam.
The JRAs have exploited and enhanced the complementarities between laboratories and have a strong innovation content in the fields of high-temperature superconductors, new materials, superconducting coatings and plasma wakefield acceleration. Breakthroughs in these technologies will have a strong impact on the European accelerator infrastructure, notably as regards the size and cost of future facilities.
ARIES contributes to the training of young scientists and engineers through the Open Course, workshops and recruitment opportunities to perform perspective studies.
Joint programming in accelerator S&T is leveraging national funding. Some of the ARIES innovations (e.g. marine diesel exhaust cleaning, radioisotope production in hospitals) are expected to have a strong economic impact and are being developed with companies.