The present proposal has as its objective a major advance in facility performance and research capability at the UNILAC/SIS18 accelerator system at the GSI Laboratory in Darmstadt, Germany. The proposed construction project aims, in one step, at two goal s: i) substantial increases in primary ion beam intensity at the present facility, with factors of five (at high charge state), respectively fifty (at low charge state), and correspondingly increased secondary intensities for beams of pions and 'radioactive beams', and ii) optimisation of the current facility as injector for the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) as planned by the European science community. The intensity increase will arise from two upgrades of the space charge limited heavy-ion synchrotron SIS18: an increase in cycling frequency and a reduction of space charge by injection at lower charge state. The intensity increase will provide radioactive beam experiments through in-flight fragmentation to approach the next-generation intensity levels.
The new capabilities can be fully utilized because we propose here, at moderate cost and effort, to adapt the experimental infrastructure with the R3B-Magnet and the upgrade of the HADES-Spectrometer to the higher secondary beam intensities. The concept of FAIR will provide for a highly parallel operation between several research programs. It was subsequently evaluated by the Wissenschaftsrat of the German Federal Government and other science groups (including NuPECC). In 2003 the German Federal Government announced approval of the project, with Germany providing up to 75% of the funding. At least 25% of the construction costs have to come from international partners. In September 2004 a Memorandum of Understanding to participate in the construction and operation of FAIR was signed by 10 countries. The SIS18 upgrade as injector for the new facility is part of the first phase of a three-phase staged construction scenario.
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