One of the core concepts in nanoscience and nanotechnology is the bottom-up approach, taking electrons, atoms, or molecules as the building blocks from which to create man-made nanosystems with the specific and desired electronic, biological, material, mechanical, or environmental properties. This approach however, poses a new and fundamental scientific challenge: the mastering of the way in which electrons, atoms, or molecules interact which each other, governed by the non-intuitive laws of quantum mechanics. This challenge drives in turn the search for better and accurate calculation methods aimed to the prediction, with the largest reliability as possible, of the properties of a particular array of electrons or atoms (nano-design).
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