Protective clothing for improved safety and performance in the fisheries
The main objective of Safe@Sea is to develop a new generation of advanced personal protective clothing for the fishing industry that will lead to a significant increase in safety without reducing work performance.
Fishing is among the most dangerous of all professions. The concept behind Safe@Sea is to increase safety by implementing improved solutions for buoyancy, tear and puncture resistance, head and hand protection, emergency warning and positioning systems. This will be achieved by the integration of state of the art materials and ICT systems and the development of new high performance materials. An ergonomic design will be developed to solve the contradictory requirements of functionality, comfort and safety.
Specifications will be developed (WP2) that provide input to concept development and prototyping (WP3) in close interaction with development and integration of materials (WP4) and integration of ICT solutions (WP5). The developed solutions, ergonomic design and usability will be thoroughly validated and tested (WP6). Manufacturing concepts, a standardisation strategy and roadmap for product maturing and market introduction will be developed (WP7). Demonstration of the technology developed and precommercial activities such as presentations of prototypes on exhibitions and trade fairs will take place in WP9. This will be supplemented by exploitation and dissemination activities (WP 8) and project management (WP1).
The consortium consists of Ohmatex ApS, FOV Fabrics AB, SISYFOS AS, Grado Zero Espace SRL, International Safety Products Limited who are leading European SMEs that develop specialised fabrics, clothing and electronics. Helly Hansen Pro AS will be responsible for the end product of fishermen clothing. The industry partners are complemented by strong scientific expertise in materials research and integration technologies at Stiftelsen SINTEF, Tampere University of Technology, Swerea IVF AB, Centre Scientifiqe & Technique de L’Industrie Textile Belge, and FUNDACION LEIA CENTRO DE DESARROLLO TECNOLOGICO. The International Maritime Health Association provides close links to a user network and expertise in safety issues. The consortium is highly complimentary and has the necessary skills and facilities to achieve the objectives of the project.
€ 814 948,55
Solfrid Sørensen (Ms.)
Sort by EU Contribution
HANSEN PROTECTION AS
€ 56 277,20
€ 255 725,60
€ 231 788
RISE IVF AB
€ 336 500
€ 207 526
CENTRE SCIENTIFIQUE & TECHNIQUE DE L'INDUSTRIE TEXTILE BELGE
€ 268 139,75
Oy B Huhta Ab
€ 93 900
FUNDACION TECNALIA RESEARCH & INNOVATION
€ 126 475
GRADO ZERO ESPACE SRL
€ 301 000
International Safety Products Limited
€ 63 940
International Maritime Health Association
€ 68 425
FOV FABRICS AB
€ 215 560
HELLY HANSEN AS
€ 108 018,90
Grant agreement ID: 229334
1 October 2009
30 September 2012
€ 4 187 847,50
€ 3 148 224
High-tech clothing for fishermen improves safety
Grant agreement ID: 229334
1 October 2009
30 September 2012
€ 4 187 847,50
€ 3 148 224
Discover other articles in the same domain of application
Final Report Summary - SAFE@SEA (Protective clothing for improved safety and performance in the fisheries)
The main objective of SAFE@SEA has been to develop new protective clothing for fishermen that will lead to a significant increase in safety without reducing work performance.
Fishing is among the most risk exposed of all occupations. The work is characterized by hazardous working conditions, strenuous labor, long work hours, harsh weather and heavy waves. Common accidents include entanglement, cut or crush injuries, being hit by gear or falling over board. A review of NIOSH data from 2000-2010 showed that 31% of all fatalities in the fisheries occurred when fishermen fell overboard. Despite the discouraging statistics, fishermen report that they rarely wear buoyancy aids while working on deck.
Project Context and Objectives:
The main objective of SAFE@SEA is to develop a new generation of advanced personal protective clothing for the fishing industry that will lead to a significant increase in safety without reducing work performance.
The main concept behind SAFE@SEA is to combine integration of "state of art" materials and ICT solutions with the development of new speciality and high-performance protective materials to realise a totally new protective clothing concept. The increased safety will be provided by improved solutions for buoyancy, thermal protection, tear and puncture resistance, head and hand protection, emergency warning and positioning systems. The advanced personal protective clothing system will be designed to satisfy end-users requirements for multi-functionality, ergonomic design and comfort in order to ensure user acceptance.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 28.5 million people around the world work in fishing and fish farming. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), fishing is among the most dangerous of all professions with as many as 24,000 fishermen around the world killed every year. Many commercial fishing operations are characterized by hazardous working conditions, strenuous labour, long work hours and harsh weather. According to NIOSH an annual average of 46 deaths occurred (124 deaths per 100,000 workers), compared with an average of 5,5 deaths (4 per 100,000 workers) among all US workers in the period 2000-2010 . Reports from Iceland indicate that yearly, 10 % of all fishermen and 15% of fishermen on trawlers suffer injuries. Improved safety at sea is a major concern for national authorities, international organizations and nongovernmental organisations.
Capsizing, grounding and collisions are some of the main reasons for fatal accidents in the fishing fleet (44%), with 26% of all accidents in the fishing industry involving fishermen drowning as a result of falling or being pulled overboard . Fishermen are highly vulnerable at work and being crushed or hit by gear are common accidents. Particularly on board larger vessels, such as trawlers, the risk of being hit by falling or flying objects is high. Another risk factor is the extreme working situations with cold, harsh weather and heavy waves. Cold produces physical and mental stress in the individual that may lead to reductions in both work performance and safety. Efficiency and safety are compromised by inadequate protective clothing for this environment.
Basis for the SAFE@SEA concept – high potential for improved safety in fisheries
Existing solutions for integrated buoyancy in maritime workwear do not satisfy users' demands for functionality and comfort. New buoyancy solutions which gain user acceptance have a high potential for preventing drowning. The development of improved scratch, tear-, wear- and puncture-resistant materials, and materials with self-repairing abilities, will keep fishermen dry and warm, and protect them from cuts and injuries.
Overview of the work packages, objectives and their interaction:
To realize the main objective of SAFE@SEA, the following scientific and technological sub-goals was established and addressed in different work packages:
WP1 Management of the project and consortium, including linking together all the projects components and maintaining communication with the Commission.
WP2 Obtain an in-depth understanding of the fishermen's working environment and identify possible differences between European fishing countries. Define a total specification of requirements to personal protective equipment for fishermen. This work package ensures the close linkage of user needs and market possibilities with concept and technology development in WP3, WP4 and WP5.
WP3 Development of overall concepts for PPE (work clothing, head protection and gloves), integrating functionalities defined in WP2. Selection and integration of the best combination of materials and ICT technologies developed in WP 4 and 5, design and development of intermediate prototypes. Manufacture of the optimized final prototype total clothing system for fishermen
WP4 Development of new specialty and high-performance materials for integration into protective clothing (work clothing, head protection and gloves) capable of maintaining high comfort levels:
1) Development and integration of new fabrics with improved tear strength and resistance to penetration of sharp objects through high strength fibres and yarns. 2) Development of coated materials with improved scratch and wear resistance as well as stain/dirt repellence and comfort. 3) Developments of materials with self-repair functions will be integrated in existing coatings materials to restore the protective outer layer on garments damaged by subjection to daily wear and tear. 4) New structures and material combinations for buoyancy involving lightweight and flexible materials. 5) Integrate shock absorber materials for head protection to protect against falling objects and prevent crushing or injury from flying gear 6) the feasibility and processibility of the new developed materials and prototypes will be evaluated of the SME partners.
WP5 Integrate electronics (e.g sensors, antenna) into protective outer garments that support alerting, localisation and possible emergency stop systems in clothing. The goal is to ensure robustness to the highly corrosive wet and salt environment whilst enabling integration of personal safety functions without compromising garment comfort for end-users. WP 5 ICT solutions will be developed and where possible, integrated into material structures having impact on material development in WP 4. Concept development in WP 3 will influence material developments in WP 4. Development tests on material level will be part of WP 4 and WP 5. Verification tests on prototypes, as well as field tests will be performed in WP 6/WP9
WP6 Ensure that the properties of developed materials and design solutions correspond to the requirements defined in WP2 and defined standards. Protection, safety and comfort aspects will be evaluated in realistic controlled test conditions and on board fishing vessels.
WP7 Integrate the developed technology into a holistic system of functional prototypes for protective fishermen's clothing and define and specify realistic processes for the industrialisation of the technological developments employed in the manufactured prototypes. This includes a handbook for manufacture, standardization issues, cost analysis, health, safety and environmental issues. Undertake an analysis of costs associated with technology integration/adoption proposals as part of the testing and validation process. Assess the ability of prototypes to meet the main project objectives for user acceptance. Fine tune concepts to end user preferences and target market price points in relevant segments.
WP 8 Disseminate public information about the SAFE@SEA total clothing system developed for fishermen assessing interest displayed in developed products and methods, and evaluating the expected economic of SAFE@SEA developments on the market. To broadcast the benefits of the developed technology to potential end-users and interest organisations, once innovations are duly protected.
WP 9 The viability of the new technology for fishermen's clothing that cannot be commercialised directly will be proven in 1) micro scale testing of new materials and ICT solutions 2) macro scale testing of final prototypes of fishermen clothing. A technology and product implementation plan will be developed.
Main Science and Technology (S&T) results
In the following the main scientific and technological results from the SAFE@SEA project will be presented for each work package.
The purpose of WP2 has been to provide the project with knowledge of the fishermen's preferences and needs regarding protective clothing, in order to set guidelines for the concept development and promote user acceptance of the developed protective clothing. Based on this knowledge, WP2 have worked to ensure implementation of solutions that meet these user preferences/needs in the final clothing concept. WP2 links the user needs and market possibilities with the concept and technology development in WP3, WP4 and WP5. The SAFE@SEA project has developed a clothing concept in accordance with user needs and preferences by following a user-focused product development process.
The overall objectives of WP2 were to i) gather an overview of existing commercially available products, ii) obtain in-depth understanding of the fishermen's working environment and situation, and iii) develop a specification of user requirements for the total personal clothing concept for fishermen. These objectives are met by the completion of four tasks; i) task 2.1 Screening of market possibilities and user needs, ii) task 2.2 Paramount requirements, market and user needs, iii) task 2.3 Identification of detailed needs and specifications and finally iv) task 2.4 Total requirements.
WP3 Concept development and prototyping
Specifications and technical results coming from all work packages flow together to build up the total clothing development in work package 3. Based on user requirements identified in WP2, different overall concepts for a novel PPE system were developed within the work package 3.
The main objectives of this work package are listed below:
- Develop overall concepts for PPE, integrating functionalities defined in WP2;
- Develop hybrid textile based samples, integrating materials and ICT solutions developed in WP4 and WP5;
- Select the best combination of materials and technologies, design and development of intermediate prototypes;
- Manufacture the optimized final prototype total clothing system for fishermen.
The SAFE@SEA project followed a user-focused development process. From WP2, the user's needs, preferences and prioritized functionalities were indicated, and the main functionalities of the clothing concept were identified. The idea generation and consequently the creation of concept samples are based on those findings from WP2 and available in the Deliverable 3.1 Preliminary concept development. The concept samples include some of the features which are possible to evaluate in a total clothing system as well as in hybrid multilayered patches. Based on workshops, brainstorming and partners feedback coming from different backgrounds, the design ideas were modified and developed more in-depth concept illustrations. During this task each user requirement coming from a list of priority has been corresponded to a combination of design/material and ICT solutions.
WP4 Development and integration of materials
The main objective of WP4 was to develop new specialty and high-performance materials for integration into protective clothing capable of maintaining high comfort levels. Activities in WP4 have been focused on developing material solutions and technologies to improve performance and facilitate required functionality. In task 4.1 focus has been in developing textile materials for protection against sharp objects (mainly knifes), including evaluation on methods on testing cut resistance. Base material for large area integration as well as reinforcement material has been developed. In task 4.2 coatings has been developed for the new textile fabrics. Several new technologies have been integrated in today's state of the market PUR-based coatings. Sol-gel particles and POSS molecules are examples of technologies developed for integration in the coating system. In the end these technologies didn't improve the functionality and was not integrated in the final coating. Instead a PUR-system with special additives was chosen. Task 4.3 focused on self healing micro capsules for integration in the coating concept. The work with development of microcapsules and integrating them in the coating in order to heal smaller damages and prevent water leakage did almost succeed during project time. But still there are some hours left in the lab before the up-scaling can start. Then, in task 4.4 buoyancy concepts have been developed facilitating life-saving flotation aid integrated in the clothing system. Since separate flotation aid (life vests) is limiting work performance, special attention has been put on optimizing work ergonomic and freedom of movement. In task 4.5 development of head protection have been focusing on finding material solutions giving acceptable impact and puncture protection combined with high work ergonomics. Prototypes have been developed based on three concept designs, rigid, semi-rigid and flexible. A summer and a winter version of each model were appreciated by the fishermen. Regarding gloves, two concepts have been developed; a one-layer glove and a three-layer glove.
T 4.1 Development and integration of new fabrics with improved tear strength and resistance to penetration of sharp objects
During the development work of a cut resistance fabric for gloves in the SAFE@SEA project, it was found that none of these existing methods measure the cut resistance in fabric as it could be in a real life scenario for fishermen. The sharp rotating wheel in the Coup Text machine used in EN388 favors materials with a high melting point and the in the TDM100 machine used in ASTM F1790-05 and EN ISO 13997 a sharp blade is used. Since electricity is used to measure when the wheel and blade have cut trough, steel fibers could raise difficulties. A new test method was developed where a commonly used knife is fitted to a frame and used to make a straight cut across the fabric or the product using a suitable backing material. The length of cut-through is evaluated. The statistical screening investigation showed that all tested settings affect the cut length.
T4.2 Development of coated materials with improved scratch and wear resistance as well as stain/dirt repellence and comfort
Several coating system have been developed and tested during the project. Sol-gel technology and POSS-molecules didn't improve the most important properties. A coating with base- and top layer of polyurethane with abrasion resistant additives were chosen to the concept.
Coating: Sol-gel approach
For the first route literature screening of sol-gel technologies has been done. Several sol-gel products were selected and applied onto PES and PA fabric supplied by FOV. The standard Martindale abrasion method for durability testing showed to be not sufficiently heavy enough for the application. Therefore the test setup was modified: the wool tissue which is used as standard abradant was replaced with sand paper. Testing with this method shows that a textile outer layer with finishing will be too weak compared to coated outer material. Several types of sol-gel particles were incorporated in the PU top layer (see below) to see the effect on the abrasion resistance and waterproofness. No improved abrasion resistance was found; in several cases a deterioration of the durability was even seen.
Coating: PU-coating approach
For the second route different types of scratch resistant and waterproof materials have been investigated. It was decided to avoid the use of PVC and focus on non-solvent based polyurethanes as the water based materials have a lower ecological impact.
In the first instance it was tested if the antenna attached to the fabric could be directly coated (knife-on-roll) with the same PU as used for the whole garment. No homogeneous coating layer could be obtained. Another approach to encapsulate the antenna was necessary.
Both fluorocarbon-pretreated and -unpretreated samples of the PA fabric were coated and delivered to Ohmatex to evaluate the difference of the adhesion of the MOB unit to the coated fabric.
The encapsulated MOB unit developed by Ohmatex is sensitive to fish oil staining. In order to improve the fish oil repellency the MOB unit was finished with Bemiguard ECO RT (1 wt%, aqueous solution) in the presence of a wetting agent. Since the polymer material of the unit is not compatible with water, marks were visible on the surface of the unit after drying at 60°C for 2 hours (drying at 100°C affects the MOB unit). Fish oil tests were performed by TUT in WP6.
In order to improve the antislip properties of the knit used for the gloves, it was treated via dip-padding with several types of binders. The knit remained quite flexible but the fixation of the individual yarns of the knit had a negative influence on the cut resistance of the glove. To avoid this phenomenon dot-coating was chosen to achieve the wanted antislip features of the glove. The binder Bemicoat SCS appeared to be the most suitable: it adheres well to the knit and the underlying membrane, which gives the possibility to attach the membrane to the knit via the dots. The dot-coated glove shows good antislip properties.
The PE knit of the glove is stained easily; a treatment is recommended to avoid this staining, especially with fish oil. A suitable wetting agent for the PE knit was found, which resulted in a good pick-up of the antistaining agent Bemiguard ECO (NN). Very good results towards (fish) oil repellency are obtained, even after washing.
T 4.3 Development of materials with self-repair functions
Three commercial systems suitable for use as self repair materials have been investigated. The first system from Bayer Materials, showed good self healing with a water column value of 350 cm before damage, 18cm after damage and 54 cm after healing.
The second system Arkema, was very good at healing but not suitable for this application. The third system trialled was Suprapolix, and issues with coating technique have yet to be overcome.
T4.4 Integration of lightweight and flexible materials for buoyancy; inflatable and non-inflatable concepts
The main objective of task 4.4 was to i) integrate new structures and materials for buoyancy in the work clothing, without reducing work comfort, ii) increase flexibility, and iii) increase moisture and heat transport. These objectives were met by completion of task 4.4 and the tasks within WP3 Concept development and prototyping.
A number of essential criteria's for selection of the final buoyancy solution were identified in delivery 2.1 Report on market and user screening and delivery 2.4 Report on detailed needs and specifications;
- To be accepted and used by the fishermen, the integrated buoyancy solution must provide the desired freedom of movement and work comfort (related to e.g. fit, flexibility, weight, volume, ventilation and insulation).
- Regular lifejackets are considered bulky and uncomfortable.
- The new product is first and foremost work clothing. Focus on out-of-water properties as well as in-water properties.
- The new solution should be a product for sudden and unexpected man-over-board situations.
- The buoyancy solution should preferably offer more than 50N of buoyancy.
Several iterations and redesigns have been made throughout the project, both on sketch and prototype level. The buoyancy properties of the work clothing depend on the total clothing concept; material properties, size, fit, and weight affect the in-water performance and the end-user acceptance of the product. To be able to evaluate the concepts, prototypes of the different solutions were developed in cooperation with WP 3 Concept development and prototyping. Four prototypes were presented at M18; three utilizing inherent buoyancy foam and one with inflatable buoyancy. Based on end-user feedback and identified requirements, the inflatable concept was selected for the final solution. This concept had the potential of a higher level of buoyancy without reducing work comfort and provided less insulation, which is considered one of the main downsides of today's state-of-the-art work clothing with inherent buoyancy foam. After this decision was made, ISP developed and tested a large number of inflatable bladder designs. The final design (D4.4 Demonstrator buoyancy solution) consists of a single chambered inflatable bladder which is integrated in the upper front of the bib. This buoyancy distribution ensures self-righting properties which is not present in todays stat-of-the-art work clothing with inherent buoyancy. The SAFE@SEA bib and jacket has the following in-water properties:
- 80 N of inflatable buoyancy
- 8 cm freeboard (wearing the jacket)
- 60° trunk angle (inclined backwards)
- Self-righting properties (less than5 sec)
T 4.5 Integration of shock absorber materials for head protection and gloves
Originally (In Annex I) the Task T.4.5 was named as Integration of shock absorbing materials for head protection. SAFE@SEA 18 month GA meeting stated that a specific subtask for gloves should be established and anchored into Task 4.5. This anchoring was mainly because of two reasons: 1) project did not contain a specific subtask for gloves, 2) B.Huhta a glove manufacturer in SAFE@SEA, expressed an interest to become also a manufacturer for headgear being developed. Task T4.5 was renamed as Head protection and gloves containing subtasks T.4.5.1 Head protection and T4.5.2 Gloves.
T4.5.1 Head protection
The overall goal of the project regarding head protection was to increase the use of head protection gear on fishing vessels and due this generate reduction of head injuries among fishermen. Project aimed to answer this by developing new type of soft, flexible and comfortable protective headgear by integrating smart shock absorber materials into ordinary headgear.
The Directive 89/391 EEC (Safety and Health at Work) guarantees minimum safety and health requirements. The guidance and regulations on implementation of this directive for merchant shipping and fishing vessels (for instance UK Marine Guidance Notes, UK Merchant Shipping Notices) list only two relevant PPE standards for head and scalp protection, EN 397:1995 'Industrial safety helmets' and EN 812: 2002 'Industrial bump caps. Today, based on the risk assessment of the fishing vessel the use of an industrial safety helmet or an industrial bump cap can be mandatory in certain work activities. When thinking of task specific hazards of fishermen both standards leave a number of essential features unaddressed because they are both written more for an industrial context. Also the interviews among fishermen showed that stiff and rigid helmets and bump caps are in many cases regarded very uncomfortable to wear. This means that in work activities where the use of PPE headgear is not mandatory, the fishermen are typically working either bareheaded or with a headgear having protection only for weather conditions.
Studies on relevant standards and the prioritized lists of the user requirements defined in WP2 (ref. delivery D2.4) set the guidelines for the further development and creation of new headgear concepts. The impact protection requirement of EN 812 is rather low. In spite of this EN 812 was selected to base the further development on, because EN 812 enables flexible headgear concepts. The future commercialization of the headgear will also be much easier if the headgear can be approved according an existing PPE standard already listed in guidance and regulations of using protective headgear onboard. The impact protection level to be reached was of course set higher than EN 812 requires. Stab protection requirement was kept as it is in EN 812. An important long-term goal was also to pursue standardization authorities to start preparing a new PPE standard.
Based on a state-of-the-art search seven (7) commercial smart material brands were selected for preliminary testing: PORON XRD, Sun Mate foams, Confor foams, Dow Corning Deflexion (TP-range and S-range structures), d3O, Zoombang and NP gel / aGEL. These materials represented two main groups of flexible smart materials. One group contains polymer materials having both shear thickening (dilatant) and viscoelastic properties. They are flexible and comfortable in normal use but on impact they momentarily stiffen and absorb the impact energy. Another group of materials are specialty foams having gel-like properties while maintaining some of the desirable properties of ordinary foam. Typically they are urethane based open-celled viscoelastic "memory" foams having high energy-absorption characteristics.
Impact tests for evaluation and comparison of smart materials and structures were made using TUT's in-house test arrangements of EN 812 Industrial bump caps and EN 13158 Protective jackets, body and shoulder protectors for equestrian use. Based on test results PORON XRD and Dow Corning Deflexion brands were selected for prototyping. Optimal densities and layer thicknesses for both these materials were selected based on further impact and stab protection testing on all available XRD and Deflexion material grades.
Smart impact protection material layers alone (in appropriate thicknesses) are not capable of producing stab protection required in EN 812. Beside searching and testing commercial material structures TUT made several different approaches to create flexible, textile based multilayer structures for stab protection. Multilayer laminates were made by utilizing different high tech fabrics and nonwoven felts (aramid, UHMWPE, high tenacity polypropylene), fabrics reinforced by needle punching bicomponent PE-PP staple fibres on them etc. A multilayer PP-fabric laminate fulfilling set requirements was developed, but this was not selected to final prototypes because a suitable, already a commercial textile laminates from Italian Tessiltoschi s.r.l. was found based on material searches.
Headgear concept design and all prototypes were made by GZE within WP3. Prototypes were developed based on three (3) concept designs 1) Rigid, 2) Semi-rigid and 3) Flexible. Field tests among Norwegian fishermen were arranged by SINTEF during summer 2012. In general all fishermen liked to maintain the option of all 3 designs, also a different summer and winter versions gained complements: "We all work in cold and harsh environments, so there is a need for different versions. A regular cap would be nice during summer time – an insulated hat is more useful in the winter time". Final prototypes were made by GZE based on feedback from fishermen.
EN 812 in-house tests on the combination of protective material layers showed that the impact protection performance of the headgear is ¨3 times higher than EN 812 requirements. B.Huhta Oy will continue the commercialization process of the headgear.
T 4.6 Fabric construction for full scale prototypes
A priority list of the most important features of the fabric was set in the beginning of the project.
2. Cleanability/washability (preferably 40 °C)
3. Durability (should exceed existing products)
4. Work comfort (better to be solved through the design, and also by the right underwear clothing, a 3 layer system package. An intangible expression, involving the combination of breathability, fit, weight, stretch etc).
A square meter weight of 350 g/m2 was set as a maximum and to aim for during development process. Based on this input, two types of weaves presented for the clothing system. They were chosen due to high tear strength and abrasion resistance in combination with low weight. One alternative was polyamide, 228 dTex, with plain construction and the other one was polyester, 550 dTex, also plain construction. The polyamide weave was better regarding the properties of interest, but has a higher price. They were both suitable to be coated on the outside and the inside but it was decided to coat them on the outside.
It was decided to go for a polyurethane coating system instead of PVC coating that is used today. Weave was produced and sent to Centexbel and SINTEF for continuing the development of coatings with different features like self-healing, dirt repellence etc. In month 18 the most promising material technologies for further development and prototyping was selected. Based on the trials at Centexbel, the polyamide weave was selected.
A weave with ripstop construction that provides high tear strength was also developed in the project and tested by Swerea. It was aimed for exposed areas like end of sleeves, knees and elbows. It was later decided not to use this material in the final prototypes.
Manufacturing for full scale intermediate prototypes was performed just after month 23 with the coating system developed and tested in lab by Centexbel. Up scaling of a new coating system gave as expected some new experiences and challenges during the manufacturing of the first batch. The new developed water-based polyurethane was traditional knife coated on the weave. In later batches for full scale final prototypes the plain construction was shifted to a twill construction to give the final fabric a softer handle. Different machine settings were tested in order to solve problems with cracks in the coating. This solved the cracking but added a strip problem instead. Discussions with one of the chemical suppliers are still ongoing. Investigation to use other base fabrics in order to solve the adhesion problem will continue. One alternative is to test fabrics with airtexturized yarns, not to use calendaring as a pre-process. Some elaboration on the pretreatment of the fabrics regarding water repellency has been performed.
FOV are working for commercialization and are convinced that an excellent fabric will be delivered to HH. Discussion will continue confidential on both HH and FOV's requests.
WP5 Integration technologies for ICT solutions
The overall objective of WP5 was to design and integrate selected state of the art ICT solutions that support alerting, localization and possible emergency stop systems in clothing. The goal was further to ensure robustness to the highly corrosive wet and salt environment whilst enabling integration of personal safety functions without compromising garment comfort for end-users.
System design, investigation and selection of ICT solution components
The final WP5 system consists of three main components; the personal worn units, the radio link between user and boat, the central and stationary alarm unit. The units to be worn by the user counts an emergency light unit (EL) and a man over board unit (MOB) that is both activated as they are immersed into water. Each unit is an integrated part of the garment, however if the units are not properly attached it will cause major discomfort in the use of the work clothes.
Given that the units are robust enough to be washed, they should not be detached except for yearly maintenance or unless the MOB unit battery needs replacing or if the EL unit needs to be replaced with a new unit. It is essential for the end-user that there is a very high degree of freedom to move and work while wearing the equipment. Due to this, there has been a high focus on the methods and materials used for the integration and encapsulation of the units.
Between the user and vessel there is a radio link that transmits the alarm data in case of an accident.
The radio link has to fulfill certain standards that ensure the range of operation and that also avoids the user from being too highly exposed to electromagnetic radiation as the antenna is located very closely to the body.
A stationary alarm unit, a receiver, is located on the boat and is paired with each MOB unit worn onboard the vessel. As the alarm reaches the receiver, the current GPS location is logged and can be used in a search and rescue situation.
The SAFE@SEA MOB system is based on the commercially available DeltaAlarm MOB_System from DeltaAlarm and subcomponents from this system, in addition to new components that have been developed. The EL unit is based on the commercially available emergency light type LNK-LJ-02A2-UML1.
Design of control electronics
The work package is aimed at developing an integrated MOB alarm unit and EL unit with both the antenna and electronics as an integral part of the garment. We have developed robust and wearable units with the MOB unit enclosing a flat and flexible antenna and the EL unit a relatively low build height.
The design challenges on the MOB unit were caused by:
- Requirement of signal reach of at least 90 m from the victim on the sea surface to a receiving base station in the mast of a little fishing boat;
- Having enough transmitted power from the antenna using a 433 MHz transmitter;
- Option of an omnidirectional IFA-type antenna with sufficient ground plane area;
- Effects on the transmission efficiency by cloth bending;
- Coupling and losses on the signal related to body proximity;
- Specific restrictions on antenna placements to achieve "Radio Line-of-sight";
- Keeping the human body exposure to electromagnetic radiation below permissible limits;
- Creating a straightforward and accurate manufacturing process.
We have succeeded in creating a robust design that has been tested and verified and has delivered an outstanding performance of the MOB application.
The design challenges on the EL unit were caused by;
- Using the same encapsulation method as the MOB unit;
- Implementing existing commercially available technology;
- Positioning of the unit on the jacket;
- Ensuring that the unit is unintended to be removed from the jacket yet detachable for maintenance or replacement.
The final electronic system design is composed of subcomponents ranging from processor circuit board, battery fixture, indicator LED, push button and flexible foil antenna. Subcomponents are based on standard microelectronics, where few modifications were made. All related interconnections and subcomponents are enclosed into the same unit, one for the EL and one for the MOB to ensure sufficient robustness while being used under extreme conditions. The MOB unit and the EL unit are separate units with no electrical nor radio contact.
Component encapsulation and interconnection
In addition to the previously mentioned design objectives such as wear ability and flexibility, the system is developed with the aim of being durable, having a good adhesion to the coated textile, low temperature curing and demonstrates good saltwater and fish oil repellency. These requirements lead to the decision of using polyurethane (PU) as the encapsulation material. PU gives a high degree of flexibility due to its two component nature, therefore the physical properties of the final material due to this chemical formula is modifiable. That is, the flexibility, hardness, curing time, color etc. can be easily adjusted.
The encapsulation process is controlled in a prototype setup with the ability of manufacturing a single unit per day. Due to the long manufacturing time, the fine tuning of the process has been a challenge to control in order to ensure conformity throughout the product cycle. However, the process can be easily scaled up to a full production line with a much higher degree of parameter control. In a full scale manufacturing setup the process time is estimated to be a few minutes per unit.
System component integration
A total of 11functional units (8 MOB units, 3 EL units) and 12 dummy units (6 MOB units, 6 EL units) have been delivered in the SAFE@SEA project. In addition, there have been a number of units without electronics that has been manufactured. These nonfunctional units have been used during testing and evaluation where no actual functional units were required however the presence of a unit was needed.
During the manufacturing development of the encapsulations, a great deal of experience has been gathered and the complete procedure describing step by step processes have been documented in the manufacturing handbook.
Definition of test criteria for system components
Comprehensive tests and evaluation of the developed systems have been performed during the development process. Internal tests supporting the development process and more formal tests validating the units have been performed in another work package. A specification of the test criteria was set prior to the actual tests performed where based on these test results, adjustments to the design was made to meet the actual requirements.
Documentation for full-scale manufacturing
In order to mature the product further, inputs of the developed manufacturing processes have been documented in the manufacturing handbook describing all necessary details of the manufacturing processes.
WP6 Validation and performance
In WP6 Validation and performance of clothing materials the overall objective is to ensure that the properties of the developed materials and garment design solutions correspond to the requirements defined in WP2 Specifications (Delivery 2.4 Report on detailed needs and specifications, Annex 6) in respect to selected protection, safety and comfort aspects. The overall aim is to have materials and garments providing sufficient protection and safety without increasing heat, cold or physical stress.
In task 6.1 a detailed plan of the test program was first outlined based on the requirements defined in WP2. Altogether around 20 international, in-house or new applied test methods for materials and structures were suggested on: thermoregulation, repellence and barrier properties against water, stains, fish oil etc., other wear comfort aspects like stiffness and friction, buoyancy, cut and stab protection, impact protection, light fastness and degradation under outdoor illumination and weather conditions, high visibility, durability of functional properties of materials and ICT components in expected wear conditions e.g. after washings, special tests for glove materials, fire safety, entanglement, ergonomics and helmets. Test program was tailored and focused according to the needs of the project along the development work towards the final prototype.
In task 6.2,ten reference materials and eight multilayer combinations were chosen and acquired based on interviews, on questionnaires and on fisherman clothing provider's experience to have a starting point for the current performance level of the garments used among fishermen and to prove the improvements of the developed materials. Natural and synthetic fiber options for 3-layer winter sets (T+5 °C) and 2-layer summer sets (T+20 °C, RH 50%) for under, middle and outer layers were selected together by HH, SINTEF and TUT.
Based on preliminary tests in connection with the development work performed in WP4 and WP5 prototype materials and structures were selected and tested for their comfort and protective properties. Centexbel developed and provided the laboratory scale PU coated fabrics in WP4 T4.2 for further testing by TUT. They made trials with different additive agents to improve repellency and mechanical durability of the coating and also provided antistaining treatments for glove knits and gloves as well as for MOB unit and flame treatment for improving adhesion. Industrial scale fabrics were produced and provided by FOV for TUT for the tests. They made trials by modifying process parametres to improve mechanical durability of the coating and improving adhesion of MOB units (WP4 T4.6). B.Huhta provided glove knits and gloves and Ohmatex the MOB units. TUT tested the labscale and then the industrial scale coated fabric for waterproofness, mechanical durability, durability in washings, fish oil repellency, staining/cleanability and comfort properties. Glove material and gloves were tested for repellency, cleanability and washability properties and the MOB unit for fish oil repellency and adhesion durability in washings. The jacket and bib after wear tests were analysed for durability and cleanability before and after washing.
Performance and comfort testing of the preliminary and final prototype garments with the developed coated fabrics were led by SINTEF (task 6.4). The prototypes were validated by the test protocols developed in task 6.3 based on the end user requirements (WP2) and standard test methods (EN-ISO 15027, and EN-ISO 12402). The test schedule at SINTEF included both manikin and human subjects. The validation of the prototypes aimed to answer if the end-user requirements were fulfilled.
The following tests were performed on the SAFE@SEA protoypes (bib, jacket, gloves and head protection):
- Ergonomic tests
- Physiological test in climatic chambers
- Water performance
- Test of MOB alarm in Trondheimsfjorden and in the pool Pirbadet
- Field test of the whole clothing concept including gloves and head protection
End producers (HH, Sisyfos, ISP, B.Huhta FOV) and RTD partners (Ohmatex, GZE, SINTEF, TUT) were highly involved in the process. The testing of the first SAFE@SEA prototypes revealed several issues that needed to be solved. This was handled in WP3 Concept development and prototyping (led by GZE) and improvements of the prototypes were done by the industrial partners before a new round of prototype testing was done by SINTEF.
To demonstrate the viability of the final prototypes of the developed materials and of the fishermen clothing system a comparison with references, set limit values and benchmarking was done in WP9
Demonstration on material and component level - final fabric testing
Weight Lighter than the reference PVC coated fabrics.
Fish oil repellency Good after washing for the developed industrial scale PU samples, better than for labscale coated fabric or for the PVC and PU references. Poor for all the developed and reference samples after cold water rinsing. Deformation of the coating on all samples but most severe on PVC samples.
(Fabric colour may affect the evaluation).
None of the PU and PVC coatings repel fish oil drops (applied AATCC 118) except microfiber woven face of the PU laminate reference.
Staining/cleanability The developed industrial scale PU coated fabrics perform better or on the same level as the PVC references after washing. After cold water rinsing the results are poorer for both the developed (blood, salad dressing, motor oil) and reference fabrics (coffee or salad dressing, motor oil). (Fabric colour may affect the evaluation).
Waterproofness greater than10 mH2O in labscale after abrasion, 5 washing cycles, flexing, fish oil and in industrial scale after fish oil, high variation in results after flexing and washing in industrial scale greater than 10 mH2O for untreated PVC and microfibre laminate references, after abrasion greater than10 mH2O for PVC knit and 1.48 mH2O for PVC woven and 1.15 mH2O for PU laminate.
Tensile strength greater than450 N after sea water treatment and artificial weathering (tested only in machine direction).
Higher than that of PVC references.
Tear strength greater than50 N for industrial scale fabrics and greater than35N for lab scale fabric.
Reference fabrics were not tested.
Performance in cold -18 °C No cracks after one folding neither with the developed nor the reference fabrics. Stiffens like PVC woven reference.
In repeated folding delamination and cracks after 2000 cycles. References were not tested for this.
Dimensional stability in washings Shrink 3% or less.
Reference fabrics were not tested in washings.
Mechanical durability in wear and washings Need for further adjustment of process parametres and testing the coated fabric properties again.
Gloves Labscale knitted glove material with repellency treatment had good fish oil repellency.
Repellency treatment of the commercial knitted glove did not show clear improvement in cleanability but it shrunk less than without treatment.
MOB units Good adhesion between MOB and the developed coated fabric after washings. The repellency treatment did not show clear improvement. Electronics work after one wash cycle.
Demonstration on garment level – final prototype garment testing
The final prototype of the SAFE@SEA work clothing provides safety for the wearer by the 80N of integrated buoyancy, automatically activated emergency light to provide high visibility in emergency situations, and an automatically activated integrated MOB alarm to transmit an alarm in man overboard situations. The functionality of the MOB unit, emergency light and buoyancy was demonstrated both in field and pool testing. It was further demonstrated that the added safety did not affect work performance or thermal comfort negatively. The final testing of the SAFE@SEA prototype demonstrated that thermal comfort and work economy were significantly improved compared to existing products. Both ergonomic tests and field testing by the fishermen demonstrated good freedom of movement and fit. In water performance tests, it was demonstrated that the SAFE@SEA prototype satisfies the EN-ISO 12402-5 standard for buoyancy aids and performs better than comparable products regarding self-righting and performance in waves.
The SAFE@SEA demonstrator of work clothing (bib and jacket) is considered to fulfil most of the user requirements identified in WP2. The garment has a clean outside with no protruding details to not involve a risk of entanglement. The fabric of the demonstrator is waterproof and windproof, and tear and tensile strength is improved to give good durability. The new fabric of the work clothing is lighter than reference PVC clothing and significant improvements in work economy and comfort was demonstrated. The bib's trouser legs have a high cut for easier donning/doffing of the bib, and the bib includes internal pockets for height adjustable knee padding inserts. The jacket has a fixed helmet compatible hood with transparent side-panels for improved side view and situation awareness. The demonstrator has both passive (eyelets) and active (underarm zippers) solutions for improved ventilation of sweat and heat. Improved moisture transport and lower skin temperatures were demonstrated resulting from the integrated inflatable lung compared to use of inherent buoyancy. This was supported by the positive feedback from fishermen regarding ventilation. The SAFE@SEA work clothing demonstrator will be provided in the existing HH fit and sizes.
The MOB alarm demonstrator is considered to fulfil 9 of the 10 identified user requirements. The MOB alarm demonstrator is activated automatically if the fisherman is submerged in the water and alerts the fishing vessel when activated. After the vessel receives the alarm signal, a remote alarm can be triggered via the on-board base station. The MOB alarm demonstrator is integrated in the work clothing by direct moulding to the fabric. It is placed on the front top of the bib to optimize both work comfort and signal performance. The lightweight, bendable encapsulation allows the garment to follow the wearers' movements without inconvenience. The MOB alarm demonstrator is light weight and weighs less than most mobile phones. The requirement of continuously reporting of location is only partially fulfilled by reporting of the location of the incident, and the unit does not contain an AIS transmitter. The MOB alarm is not maintenance-free, but electronics have a minimum power drain and a yearly battery replacement is the only maintenance required (common service frequency with the inflatable lung).
The head protection demonstrator is slightly heavier and more voluminous than existing hard shell bump caps approved according to EN 812. On the other hand, it provides more extensive protection against both impact and stab. The use of impact foam and textile based stab protection makes it flexible and comfortable, but this can be further improved by a better compatibility between the protective layers and the external layer. The demonstrator utilizes durable fabrics, has channels for ventilating sweat/heat and protects against water, wind and cold. The thermal testing demonstrated that the HH fleece mountain cap with protective inner shell (SAFE@SEA prototype winter) provided the best thermal protection. The SAFE@SEA prototype winter provided better thermal protection than the traditional helmet and balaclava.
It was demonstrated that the existing cut resistant inner gloves Ansell Hyflex gloves acts as a strong vapour barrier compared to the SAFE@SEA Swerea glove (Dyneema) and the stain-resistance coated Glovita glove. A wet inner-glove is uncomfortable to wear and is likely to reduce skin temperature and comfort during prolonged cold exposure. The end users (fishermen from Honningsvåg, Norway) all liked the fit and feel of the SAFE@SEA cut resistant glove. They seem to prefer a cut protective inner glove, because then it could be used for several outer gloves (they do use different gloves depending on tasks and season). Several fishermen asked us whether this one really protected against cuts. Because it felt and looked like an ordinary cotton glove. This must be taken into consideration when communicating and marketing the product.
WP7 Engineering and industrialization
Handbook for Manufacture
The task 7.1 Handbook for Manufacture has been divided into three different handbooks; Jacket and Bib, Head protection and Gloves. The Jacket and Bib handbook was based on the seven prototypes that were made throughout the product development process, including the final prototypes that were field tested during the summer of 2012. The feedback from end user testing, laboratory testing and conclusions from the actual manufacturing of the prototypes validated the specifications, patterns, construction solutions and materials chosen for the garments. Some adaptations were made to the construction and details at the very end of the process.
The manufacturing processes that are described include the production of the developed main fabric, the buoyancy lung, the encapsulation of the MOB alarm and emergency light and the integration and assembly of all components into garments. The garment assembly will be built up according to Helly Hansen standard operation procedures for garment production and quality control.
The final product is divided into a system of modules that are interchangeable to optimize the flexibility and efficiency in warehouse handling, for customers, sales force, service of electronics and lungs and replacement of used up components (modules). The construction of the garments is such that they can't be worn without all the modules in place to ensure the safety of the wearer at all times. The bib can't be worn without the lung and the MOB alarm in place, and the jacket can't be worn without the emergency light attached.
Description of the final SAFE@SEA prototype
bib and jacket:
- Integrated man overboard alarm
- Integrated inflatable lung (80N)
- Integrated emergency light
- Transparent side panels in hood for improved situation awareness
- Bright colour in base material
Task T7.2 Optimization of manufacturing processes was during M30 decided to be integrated into task T7.1 and delivered as one delivery D7.1. The objective of this task was to evaluate the manufacturing costs and a manufacturing flow to optimize the bulk production and logistics. The production will be based in Europe and each customer order will be assembled at the warehouse from the requested modules before shipping to end user.
Strategy for Standardization and Certification
The objective of task T7.3 was to determine a strategy for tackling regulatory and standardization issues for the developed products. Regarding the buoyancy solution the main challenge has been to satisfy end user needs and at the same time comply with existing standards. It is decided to aim for either EN ISO 12402-5 or EN ISO 12402-6. For the gloves there are no end user specific standards focusing on risks on board a fishing vessel so there is a need to establish a set of relevant performance levels. A draft for a new specific standard for this type of gloves has been made for internal work. Approval to the EN 812 (bump caps) can be used as a starting point for the protective headgear developed in the project, but as it is written for an industrial context it leaves a number of essential features unaddressed. There is a need for a new user specific standard for the fisheries that considers task specific hazards, focuses on comfort and opens for utilization of the protective properties offered by improved protective foam materials.
Environmental consequence analysis
The environmental analysis has been made with regards to use of hazardous substances, energy consumption, the reducing of production waste and use of recycled and reusable materials. Depending on the maturity of the different parts of the product concept (jacket, bib, gloves and head protection) the analysis cannot be as thorough for all parts.
The Helly Hansen strategy for chemical content management is bluesign, and therefore the final main fabric will be bluesign approved before going into production. Other components, such as zippers and trims will also be chosen from bluesign approved vendors. The placement of production in Europe ensures minimal transportation between component manufacturers, garment assembly factory and warehouse.
The protos of the SAFE@SEA- solution have been tested with and presented to various interests groups during in 2012. The feedback received has been positive and industrial partner Helly Hansen intends to take the solution or part of the solution to the market. For minimized risk and maximized flexibility, Helly Hansen will provide a modular concept in which parts of the solution easily can be changed or replaced. The intended launch of the SAFE@SEA solution will support their strategy of launching purposeful innovations based on consumer insights. At the termination of the project, the launch is still however subject to the final development, cost and risk analysis which is to follow.
WP8 Exploitation and Dissemination
A first version of the SAFE@SEA Dissemination Plan (S@SDP) was produced early in the project and periodically updated at regular intervals throughout the course of the project. At the end of the project, the final dissemination SAFE@SEA strategy has been formalized in the Plan for Use and Dissemination of Foreground (PUDF). Specific results on project dissemination and promotion activities are listed both in the PUDF and section 4.2 of this document. More than 120 dissemination, promotion and demonstration activities have been carried out by the project: Participation in 30 scientific conferences, seminars and workshops including 25 presentations; 7 Exhibitions in trade fairs (Fisheries, Safety), 10 Technical and scientific publications, more than 40 press releases, leaflets, interviews, brochures and finally an updated website as key pillar for dissemination, promotion and exploitation activities (pre-marketing purposes). Two innovative media products have been made: 1) the documentary produced by Euronews and 2) the educational film made with Norwegian Snöball film. Main sectors impacted by SAFE@SEA dissemination, promotion and demonstration activities have been: Fisheries and connected industry, Personal Protective Equipment manufacturers, manufacturers of electronic modules, advanced textiles, etc; providers of advanced services (testing, certification of conformity, CE mark), standardization bodies, research organizations and consulting. The SAFE@SEA website (see http://www.safeatsea-project.eu/ online) has been used as an important tool to deploy the S@SDP. In order to be used as a key pre-marketing tool, it has been deeply updated at the end of the project, emphasizing the SAFE@SEA product concept.
Referring exploitation tasks, first activities on project exploitation were drawn at the first stages of the project. However, specific items for exploitation have been developed at the end of the project, when tangible results have been successfully tested and validated. The PUDF has been refined progressively taken into account last inputs from the SAFE@SEA partners. The PUDF describes the plans for using and disseminating the knowledge generated during the project and the use plans (future research or exploitation) for the results, for the Consortium as a whole, and/or for individual participants or groups of participants. This document contents confidential information on risk analysis for the future exploitable results of SAFE@SEA, target market identification, dissemination measures, business plan, exploitation plan, Intellectual Property Rights, Ownership and Access. Concerning the Exploitation Agreement (EA), divergent exploitation interests still exist in the consortium (Risks analysis) but partners are working together for solving these differences. No global EA has been signed yet but the transitional strategy is ongoing.
Regarding demonstration of the viability of final prototypes of materials, the test results received in Task 6.2 for reference and developed fabrics were compared to each other in regard to protection, safety and comfort. In addition, several test were conducted in the pool and from small fishing vessels to test with success the integrated and moulded MOB unit received from Ohmatex; basically activation of MOB alarm (when falling backwards into the water, jumping into water, laying in water and turning around), transmission distance from victim in water and to the BaseStation.
Referring the viability of the final prototypes of materials, MOB unit and fisherman clothing system (gloves, head protection, bib and jacket):
- The new developed PU coated fabric was tested with good results for its physical, strength, mechanical durability, waterproofness, repellency and comfort properties in lab scale and in industrial scale. The new PU coated fabric was compared with good results to limit values or the tested PVC coated fabrics. In addition, the final prototype tests demonstrated that the work comfort in SAFE@SEA prototype is improved compared to existing products and those important ergonomic factors such as good freedom of movements are satisfactory.
- The work clothing concept (bib and jacket, head protection prototypes and cut protection gloves) was presented for 18 fishermen (Field tests) with good results regarding the light weight and the feel of the fabric, the new functional solutions and head protection. Later three available work clothing prototypes were sent out to fishermen to be tested for a longer period of time in actual work conditions. In general the SAFE@SEA prototype received a higher rating regarding freedom of movement, solutions for ventilation of sweat and heat, 'light weight and feels light to wear during work', integration of the MOB alarm and integration of the emergency light.
- Regarding user requirement, the final work clothing prototypes have solutions that attend to most of the highly prioritized user requirements identified in WP2. When the SAFE@SEA garment is launched on the market in 2013, it will be the only work clothing for fishermen with integrated MOB alarm, inflatable buoyancy and emergency light. This is a unique combination that will increase survival at sea, and most likely reduce time to rescue significantly. In general the new SAFE@SEA clothing ensemble (bib and jacket) compared to existing concepts improves properties in terms of weight, ventilation, transpiration. The new base material developed in the project has radically improved properties in terms of tear and tensile strength, but the industrial scale fabric still have some challenges regarding delamination and washing. The end users all liked the fit and feel of the SAFE@SEA Swerea glove. Regarding head protection, the results of the in-house testing showed that both the stab protection and the impact protection requirement of EN812 should be fulfilled with the materials layers selected for final prototypes. The SAFE@SEA prototype winter provided better thermal protection than the traditional helmet and balaclava.
Finally, promotion activities such as participation in fairs, exhibitions and conferences for training and demonstration considered in this work package has been managed and monitored jointly with dissemination activities (WP7). In this sense, the final dissemination, promotion and demonstration (DPD) SAFE@SEA strategy has been formalized in the PUDF. And as mentioned the SAFE@SEA website will constitute a key pillar to deploy the final DPD strategy.
- HH intends to take the SAFE@SEA prototype to the market 2013 (HH);
- B. Huhta Oy has the intention expand the range of safety gloves to new areas;
- Highly innovative, new product on the market PPE with increased safety without reducing work performance;
- Expected high level of customer satisfaction due to user driven process that have been guiding the development in SAFE@SEA;
- High added value for the customers in terms of protection level, comfort and work performance;
- Increase competitiveness for the industrial partners in SAFE@SEA;
- Possible spin off to other markets: (e.g. offshore oil industry, offshore shipping, aquaculture, other marine industries) and leisure activities for adults and children in coastal waters (e.g leisure fishing, sailing and boating);
- The possible impact on public health and occupational safety in society in the future is very broad.
- Reduction in work related accidents in the fishing industry;
- Increased productivity because of higher satisfaction and better work economy;
- Reduce the number of fatal accidents;
- Reduced societal costs (in Norway alone, the insurance disbursement costs relating to fatalities and injuries in the fisheries are about 25 million EUROS yearly);
- Increased attractiveness to employment on board fishing vessels in Europe – willingness to work in a harsh environment – safety awareness.
The results supports that the overall aim of the SAFE@SEA project have been fulfilled: "to make comfortable and durable work clothing – with integrated safety". When released on the market, more fishermen will likely use a PFD during work and this will contribute to reduce the number of lost lives at sea.
List of Websites:
Grant agreement ID: 229334
1 October 2009
30 September 2012
€ 4 187 847,50
€ 3 148 224
Deliverables not available
Publications not available
Grant agreement ID: 229334
1 October 2009
30 September 2012
€ 4 187 847,50
€ 3 148 224
Grant agreement ID: 229334
1 October 2009
30 September 2012
€ 4 187 847,50
€ 3 148 224