Upgraded Facility for Development of Silicon and Diamond Particle Detector Systems
Grant agreement ID: 256783
1 August 2010
31 January 2014
€ 1 479 332
€ 1 319 612,70
RUDER BOSKOVIC INSTITUTE
RUDER BOSKOVIC INSTITUTE
Bijenicka Cesta 54
€ 1 319 612,70
Stjepko Fazinic (Dr.)
Grant agreement ID: 256783
1 August 2010
31 January 2014
€ 1 479 332
€ 1 319 612,70
RUDER BOSKOVIC INSTITUTE
Grant agreement ID: 256783
1 August 2010
31 January 2014
€ 1 479 332
€ 1 319 612,70
RUDER BOSKOVIC INSTITUTE
Final Report Summary - PARTICLE DETECTORS (Upgraded Facility for Development of Silicon and Diamond Particle Detector Systems)
The trend in nuclear and particle physics experiments is to deploy ever more specialized particle detector systems. However, the facilities in Europe are often overbooked to meet the requirements for the timely development and testing of such systems. The aim of this project has been to improve the detector systems development and testing capabilities of the nuclear and particle physics laboratories of the Rudjer Boskovic Institute (RBI), in order to satisfy the demands of these modern experiments.
The three participating laboratories of the Department of Experimental Physics (DEP) are: Laboratory of High Energy Physics (LHEP), Laboratory of Nuclear Physics (LNP), and Laboratory of Ion Beam Interactions (LIBI). Experimental work of these three groups involves many similar aspects in the choice of detector front-end readout electronics, DAQ and process control technology, greatly increasing the synergetic value an advanced shared detector development facility could provide. LIBI runs the RBI Tandem accelerator centre, the largest and the most complex experimental facility in Croatia, where the know-how exists on testing detector materials by ion beam diagnostic techniques.
The staffs involved in these three laboratories have an excellent knowledge of the experimental techniques involved, particularly concerning the modern trends employing silicon and diamond detectors. They have been active in top European research centres such as CERN and GSI, but lack of adequate state-of-the-art equipment at RBI hindered the full utilization of their potential.
This project aimed to remedy this situation by reinforcing the scientific and technological potential of the NPP laboratories for designing, building and testing specific instrumentation needed in their core activities within experimental nuclear and particle physics, interdisciplinary research and applications. The strengthening of the detector development and testing capabilities has been achieved through the enlargement and mobilization of related material and human resources.
This involved the upgrade and renewal of existing equipment. Novel silicon and diamond detectors, instrumentation and materials were acquired. Partnerships with seven European institutions that possess exceptional know-how in this field have been strengthened and the exchange of know-how and experience with researchers from partnering institutions have been achieved by 64 outgoing and 17 incoming exchange of visits, including organized on-the-job training events during real experiments at leading European laboratories in experimental nuclear and particle physics (CERN, GANIL, Orsay, INFN, PSI). Three thematic workshops, related to silicon and diamond detectors development and testing and to DAQ systems, were organized, as well as four dissemination workshops for potential international scientific collaborators, for Croatian researchers and industry. Six experts were employed under the project. The testing vacuum chamber was designed and built using all the components procured for this purpose, and finally commissioned, as well as the laser testing setup. Ion microprobe was upgraded to allow measurements in air. Dissemination activities were organized for wide audiences.
This project helped RBI to maintain and increase its involvement in cooperative research projects with EU partners as it became qualified to participate on equal footing in the experimental development, running and upgrading of international collaborative experiments. The upgraded facility is unique in Croatia with potential benefits for the broader scientific community and national universities and industry.
Project Context and Objectives:
The main project objective was to improve the detector development and testing capabilities of the nuclear and particle physics (NPP) laboratories of the Division of Experimental Physics of the Rudjer Boskovic Institute (RBI), in order to meet the experimental demands of the modern experiments. The NPP laboratories taking part are particularly well suited for this effort. The scientific and technical knowledge involved is closely related, and the personal and technical contacts between their members are admirable. The members have been active in numerous top European experimental facilities such as CERN, GSI and GANIL. However, the lack of adequate state-of-the-art equipment at RBI hinders the full utilization of the potential of the NPP laboratories.
This project aimed to remedy this situation by reinforcing the scientific and technological potential of the NPP laboratories for designing, building and testing specific instrumentation needed in their core activities within experimental nuclear and particle physics, interdisciplinary research and applications. The strengthening of the detector development and testing capabilities has been achieved through the enlargement and mobilization of related material and human resources. This involves the upgrade and renewal of existing equipment, the strengthening of strategic partnerships with prominent EU research entities in the field, the enlargement of the staff with incoming experienced personnel, the mobilization of the existing personnel, and the exchange of know-how and experience with researchers from prominent EU research institutions. The last step included the organisation of thematic workshops at international level, and short term training events for DEP staff at RBI as well as at leading European laboratories in experimental nuclear and particle physics (CERN, GANIL, GSI and others).
Specifically, the scientific and technical objectives of the proposed project were:
1. To reinforce the potential and capability for the development of state-of-the-art silicon detector systems for charged particles detection.
2. To reinforce the potential and capability for the development of state of-the-art diamond detectors for charged particles detection.
3. To reinforce the potential and capability for the testing of state-of-the-art silicon and diamond detector systems for charged particles detection.
4. To strengthen the capabilities for development and testing of detector data acquisition and process control systems used in nuclear and particle physics experiments.
5. To strengthen the organization of the upgraded detector development facility, to mobilize human resources, to strengthen synergy between activities of the NPP laboratories, and to increase the visibility inside and outside RBI (at national and international levels).
Required actions to achieve the first project objective were:
1. Renewal of the existing silicon detector pool and procurement of novel silicon detectors.
2. Upgrade and enlargement of the pool of electronics units and equipment for silicon detector readout and front-end electronics.
3. Exchange of knowledge, know-how and experience, and organization of a workshop on silicon detector systems development and testing with collaborators from prominent European institutions.
4. Hiring an experienced researcher in silicon sensors to transfer know-how to the local staff and to aid in all levels of this objective.
Implementation of these actions started during the first period, and continued until the project end. Silicon strip detectors of various thicknesses and shapes, as well as silicon pixel detectors were procured. Various electronic units such as preamplifiers, discriminators, cablings etc. were procured. Silicon detector workshop was organized in Split. Exchange of knowledge with partnering institutions was realized through 28 outgoing and 4 incoming visits. Experienced researcher (Laura Grassi) was employed during the first reporting period and she stayed with us until the project end.
Required actions to achieve the second project objective were:
1. Procurement of novel diamond detectors with state-of-the-art timing preamplifiers and/or with high energy resolution.
2. Upgrade and enlargement of the pool of electronics units and equipment for diamond detector readout and detector front end electronics.
3. Exchange of knowledge, know-how and experience, and organization of a workshop on diamond detector systems development and testing with collaborators from prominent European institutions.
4. Hiring of an experienced researcher in diamond sensors to transfer know-how to the local staff and to aid in all levels of this objective.
Implementation of these actions started during the first period, and continued until the project end. We purchased a number of mono crystalline and polycrystalline materials for diamond detectors, many electronic units (including preamplifiers, power supplies, various NIM BIN modules, translation stage, and electronic consumables. Diamond workshop was organized in May 2012 at Plitvice Lakes. Exchange of knowledge with partnering institutions was realized through 13 outgoing and 7 incoming visits. Experienced researcher (Davit Chokeli) was employed during the first reporting period and he stayed with us until the project end.
Required actions to achieve the third project objective were:
1. Design, procurement of equipment, and finally building of a vacuum chamber system.
2. Procurement of elements for a full laser setup for silicon and diamond detector testing.
3. Exchange of knowledge, know-how and experience with collaborators from prominent European institutions.
4. Hiring of an experienced researcher in technical science to transfer his/her know-how to the local staff and to aid in all levels of this objective.
Implementation of these actions started during the first period, and continued until the project end. Originally it was planned to employ experienced researcher during the first reporting period. However we could not realize this as planned. Therefore Davit Chokeli spent considerable time working on the construction of the vacuum chamber. Fabio Schirru started to work in July 2012. He was working with us until July 2013 when he left to work at GSI, our partner institution. He was also involved in the tasks related to diamond detectors. Nikola Poljak was employed from September 2012 to July 2013. He worked on testing aspects for silicon pixel detectors, including laser testing. The testing vacuum chamber was designed and built using all the components procured for this purpose, and finally commissioned. Ion microprobe was upgraded to allow experiments in-air. The laser testing setup was designed and built based on the procured components. Exchange of knowledge with partnering institutions was realized through 9 outgoing and 3 incoming visits.
Required actions to achieve the fourth project objective were:
1. Procurement of novel data acquisition modules and related state-of the-art software.
2. Acquiring Printed Circuit Board prototyping abilities.
3. Procurement of electronic components and tools for detector process control devices.
4. Exchange of knowledge, know-how and experience, and organization of a workshop on detector data acquisition and detector process control with collaborators from prominent European institutions.
5. Hiring of an experienced researcher in detector data acquisition and process control systems to transfer his/her know-how to the local staff and to aid in all levels of this objective.
Implementation of these actions started during the first period, and continued until the project end. We procured software for programming and controlling FPGAs and FPGA development boards, circuit simulation and design software, PCB prototyping plotter and 3D printer, PCI bus based DAQ board systems, fast transient data acquisition system, VMA crate and various materials. DAQ workshop was organized in November 2011. Vlasios Petousis was employed in June 2011, but he left in June 2012. Darko Mekterovic was employed in August 2012, and he stayed until the project end. Exchange of knowledge with partnering institutions was realized through 14 outgoing and 3 incoming visits.
Required actions to achieve the fifth project objective were:
1. Strengthening and mobilizing human resources: The technical staff of the NPP laboratories involved in detector development continued to work at their former positions. However, these staffs have been also taking part in activities of interest to some or all project partners where their expertise may help.
2. Dissemination of knowledge and project results at all levels, and strengthening communication between the NPP laboratories and other research entities having similar scientific interests: Dissemination of knowledge of the project results has been done at the national and international level with the goal to increase and to strengthen the participation of the scientists from the NPP laboratories in collaborative projects, and for them to become equal partners with the research groups from abroad. Having this in mind, several workshops at RBI were organized for targeted groups of possible new collaborators at the national and European level. New experimental, research, development and testing capabilities of the upgraded facility were presented at relevant international conferences. Regular seminars for all research staff of RBI and of the University of Zagreb have been organized. In order to spread the project results to the general public, the staff participated at RBI Open Days. The divisional web site has been upgraded to present the increased experimental capabilities.
Implementation of related actions started during the first period, but most of the staff effort was realized in the second period. We participated at the RBI Open Days in April 2013. Spark chamber for cosmic ray detection was assembled for demonstrations to general public. Dissemination workshops were organized for potential international scientific collaborators, for Croatian researchers and industry. Fourteen individual participations at conferences were supported. Particle Detectors brochure was printed. Regular seminars were held. The project was presented to wider audience through media.
The specific project objectives were accomplished through 6 work packages:
- Work package 1 (WP1): Project management
- Work package 2 (WP2): Strengthening the silicon detector R&D capabilities
- Work package 3 (WP3): Strengthening the diamond detector R&D capabilities
- Work package 4 (WP4): Assembling testing facilities for silicon and diamond
- Work package 5 (WP5): Strengthening the detector Data Acquisition and process
control R&D capabilities
- Work package 6 (WP6): Dissemination of project results and public awareness
WP1 is related to project management activities and WP6 to dissemination activities. The other work packages are technical work packages, and the following section provides a concise overview of the work done under each of them, describing the main S&T achievements of the project.
This section provides a concise overview of the work done under work packages WP2 to WP5, describing the main S&T achievements of the project.
1. Work package 2 (WP2): Strengthening the silicon detector R&D capabilities
The particular objectives of WP2 are:
• upgrade and renewal of the existing silicon detector pool, including related electronics and modules,
• procurement of state of the art silicon pixel detector systems for use in future R&D activities,
• education of personnel in use of the detectors and related equipment.
The work on the above objectives started during the first reporting period, continued and was finalized during the second reporting period. Below we summarize the main achievements obtained under this work package.
1.1. Upgrade and renewal of the existing silicon detector pool, including related electronics and modules
To achieve this objective we performed a number of tasks starting from the beginning of the project. The first step was analysis of silicon strip detectors available on the market and deciding on the type and number of detectors which that should be acquired. In the decision-making, experience and knowledge of experts from our partner institutions was of large importance. After extensive discussions with partners from Birmingham and Huelva about optimal detector characteristics for our future research program, it was decided to acquire two different types of the silicon strip detectors.
The first type is related to square shaped detectors of two different thicknesses. We purchased those detectors from Micron Semiconductor Ltd UK during the first reporting period. The next step in the upgrade of the silicon detector pool was to design and construct different and complementary detector array with lower granularity but larger angular coverage. For this it was decided to acquire: twelve large area strip detectors of trapezoidal shape that subtend 45o. The front side of the detector is divided into 16 radial strips providing good angular resolution in polar angle. Available thicknesses of this type of detector range from 65 to 1500 μm. Our choice was to acquire the thinnest and the thickest detectors to build again detector telescopes for particle identification. Finally detectors from Micron Semiconductor Ltd UK were purchased. Costs of these detectors were shared between the Particle Detectors project and national research grant in nuclear physics, in such a way that the cost of 23930.37 € for thick detectors was covered by the Particle detectors project. The detectors were delivered in June 2012. Trapezoidal detectors were tested and commissioned in December 2012. Mounts for these detectors were designed by the staff involved in the project and manufactured at the Institute mechanical workshop.
The other large purchase was related to the upgrade of electronic units for processing of electric signals from silicon strip detectors. More specifically, two sets of new VME type leading edge discriminators were purchased from CAEN in July 2012 for 51649.52 € (34034.63 € + 17614.89 €). All these items were mentioned in the Deliverable D2.5 submitted in January 2013, except one of the CAEN bills, which was omitted there by mistake. These units are used in standard experimental condition when noise can be largely reduced, enabling use of fast logic output signals from the amplifiers as inputs for these units. This second set of VME discriminators can be used in the same experimental set-up with old-style NIM discriminators. We own 20 NIM discriminator units having together 160 channels, so combined with newly purchased V895B units, we can process 352 channels in total which correspond to quite large silicon strip detector array.
At 28th Project Management Board (PMB) meeting held on 13th February 2013, further plans for the purchase of equipment/materials were discussed for each Work package. In this respect it was agreed to purchase four 32 channel preamplifiers, detector adapter and cablings from Mesytec. One of the most critical components in the electronics processing chain of signals from the silicon strip detectors is preamplifier. Adequate selection of the preamplifier characteristics and its proper settings can largely reduce noise and improve energy signal resolution. For this reason we acquired the best buy preamplifiers for silicon strip detectors on the market – 7 units of the 32 channels MPR-32 by mesytec GmbH & co. KG Germany, specially adapted devices for silicon strip detectors at reasonable price. This purchase also included two types of cables (inside and outside of vacuum chamber), detector adapters and vacuum feedthroughs needed to connect silicon strip detectors with the preamplifiers. This was realized in April 2013 with the cost of 27032.21 €.
In line with the decisions of the 33rd PBM meeting held on 2nd October 2013, additional four silicon strip detectors were purchased from Micron Semiconductors in October 2013 for 16867.44 €. Our main tool in a number of experiments performed in the last 4-5 years were silicon detector telescopes build from thin 20 μm single side strip detectors and thick (500 – 1000 μm thickness) double side strip detectors, both of size 50 mm x 50 mm and divided into 16 strips (DSSSD has mutually orthogonal 16 strips on each side). Such telescope makes possible identification in mass and charge of the detected nuclei in quite broad range of energy and mass of the nuclei. In the same time it provides very good resolution in position and energy for quite large solid angle. These devices are therefore perfectly suited for our research program in nuclear structure of light nuclei and reactions. We acquired two 20 μm single side strip detectors and two 500 μm double side strip detectors at discount price as they were already available in stock.
1.2. Procurement of state of the art silicon pixel detector systems for use in future R&D activities
(i) CMS Pixel Detector module
At first a visit to Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland), where the CMS pixel detector was designed and built, was organized. The CMS Silicon Pixel detector is a modular detector made from 1440 different modules. It was designed for the precise determination of interaction points in high energy collisions in the CMS experiment. Vuko Brigljević, Davit Chokheli and Jelena Luetić visited Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland (PSI) in April 2012, where they were introduced to the people who designed and assembled the CMS Silicon Pixel Detector, including both the modules and the associated readout electronics. The visit was focused on the installation and understanding of the software required for testing and data taking with single pixel modules. At the end of the visit they were able to perform some basic tests to see the functionality of the detector. After the visit an order was placed to get the same setup at the Rudjer Boskovic Institute.
In July 2012 the following equipment arrived:
1. one CMS Pixel Detector half-module,
2. CMS Testboard psi46 with Altera FPGA,
3. Fujitsu - Siemens PC with psi46expert software for testing and data acquisition,
4. one smaller version of the detector with single readout chip and simpler electronics attached to it for testing purposes,
5. Keithley 2410 high voltage power supply.
Total cost of the CMS detector setup (items 1 to 4) was 5207.72 €, and the cost of Keithley 2410 high voltage power supply was 5845.41 €. These were the major components of the complete system ready to use. The first step after the purchase was to set up an operational test stand for one of the pixel modules as well as to be able to take data with it. The system was successfully set up with the same functionality as during the visit to PSI, and it is functional and ready for use. The acquired setup was used for lab session during Silicon Pixel detectors workshop held in Split. The workshop was lead by Andrei Starodumov from ETH Zurich. The main purpose of the lab session was to show both the group and other members of the local scientific community the basic functionality and to become familiar with some of the advanced testing capabilities of the setup.
At 28th PMB meeting held on 13th February 2013 it was agreed to purchase "Cold Box" from ETH in order to increase the potential for pixel detector testing. It was realized that it would be very valuable to have the ability to test the response of silicon detectors under very well controlled temperature and humidity conditions. The Cold Box was designed with the aim of testing pixel detectors, although it can be used to test other types of small detectors as well. The cost of this unit was 5400.22 €. Also, a new generation of pixel detectors, based on a new digital Readout Chip, has recently been developed for the CMS detector at the LHC and first prototypes of this new Readout chip were made available in the course of 2013. It was approved at the same PMB meeting to purchase such a prototype in order to learn working with this new type of detector and be able to develop readout electronics for such detectors for future detector upgrades. The cost of this unit was 959.69 €.
(ii) Peltier cooled charged coupled device sensor for imaging and spectroscopy
Recent developments of charged coupled devices (CCD) that use Peltier cooling to reduce the noise had significant impact on the possibility to use such devices for position sensitive radiation detection. Pixel size between 10 and 20 micrometers is appropriate for detection of keV range x-rays as well as minimum ionizing particles, but not for heavy particles (ions) that may damage silicon crystal rather easily. This technology developed mainly for x-ray imaging applications can be now used also for energy spectroscopy in the low keV energy region. In order to explore possibilities of using such device in experiments that involve detection of x-rays or minimum ionizing particles, we have purchased Greateyes GmbH 1024x1024 pixel CCD for 20336.93 €. High performance sensitive USB2.0-CCD-Camera GE 1024x1024 with back-illuminated CCD, x-ray sensitivity range 0.12 -20 keV, 13 x 13 micrometers pixel size, with Peltier cooling in vacuum and with vacuum flange was purchased. The system included drivers and software for data acquisition. The system was tested and in working condition. It has already been used in our R&D activities.
1.3 Procurement Summary
In addition to the above mentioned equipment, several smaller units and materials were obtained in this work package. Two different small Si photodiodes were purchased to be tested as potential particle detectors from Hamamatsu for 1507.50 €. Two Tektronix oscilloscopes were purchased for the total cost of 4601.11 €. Various materials were purchased for 1499.82 €. Altogether during the second reporting period 165107.94 € were spent for equipment and materials (163608.13 € + 1499.82 €). If we take in account that the cost of equipment and materials in the first reporting period was 58307.10 € (57119.12 € + 1187.98 €), then the total cost of equipment and materials for WP2 for the whole project period is 223415.04 € (220727.25 € + 2687.80 €). At the beginning of the project it was planned that the total cost for equipment and materials for WP2 would be 197300 €. The actual cost at the project end is higher for 26115.04 €.
1.4 Exchange of visits with partner organizations
The following exchanges of visits with our partners were realized as part of WP2:
• L. Prepolec visited University of Birmingham on May 22th – 28th 2011. During this visit, he worked with Prof. M. Freer on the data collected with the Micron Semiconductor double sided silicon strip detectors during the recent measurements at the RBI Tandem accelerator facility. Data were explored with aim to improve detection abilities of the RBI silicon detector array. Knowledge and experience of Prof. Freer and his co-workers from the University of Birmingham was of great help in interpretation of the results. They suggested improvements in experimental setup for full utilization of the detector features and increased quality of the data.
• L. Prepolec and the foreign expert employed on the project, L. Grassi, visited one of the top European nuclear physics accelerator laboratories, GANIL Caen France, for a practical on-the-job training organized by the University of Birmingham nuclear physics group from June 27th to July 8th 2011. This visit to GANIL provided Lovro with an excellent opportunity to get the valuable knowledge and experience on the use of the double sided silicon strip detectors (DSSD). It was nice occasion for Laura to exchange and enhance her knowledge and experience on silicon strip detectors with worldwide experts in the field from Birmingham and Caen.
• T. Antičić and V. Petoussis went to NA61 partner NIKHEF in Amsterdam (part of NA61/Frankfurt collaboration), between 20.09 and 22.09 2011. They met the team that designed and produced the GOSSIP (Gas on Slimmed Silicon Pixel) detector, who showed in detail the full setup chain of the GOSSIP detectors, how they work, how they are tested, and read out, as well as the current status with regard to accuracy and issues. GOSSIP detectors are gas based silicon pixel detectors.
• V. Brigljevic went to CERN between 30.11.2010. and 10.12.2010. to investigate the CMS pixel arrangements. Dr. Brigljevic participated in the data taking of proton – proton collisions with the CMS detector at CERN to get familiar with the Silicon Pixel detector used. He had several meetings with Roland Horisberger and Urs Langenegger from the CMS Pixel project to prepare future collaboration of RBI in the upgrade of the barrel pixel detector in CMS.
• T. Anticic went to Bristol University between 03.07.2011. and 05.07. 2011. One day was dedicated to WP2 matters. Bristol University is a leading partner in the CERN CMS silicon project, so T. Antičić was introduced by dr. Joel Goldstein, faculty member of Bristol and PD steering committee member, to their experimental setups for the CMS silicon detectors.
• T. Anticic went to CERN on 6.06. and 7.06.2011. (part of 4 day trip at CERN) to become familiar with the NA61 experiment concerning the details of the planned silicon vertex detector. Discussions with NA61 staff (M. Gadzinski, H. Stroheble) were made concerning the optimal location of the vertex detector, as well as the possible technology solutions. Two solutions in particular were decided to be investigated: GOSSIP (gas on slimmed pixels) technology as made by NIKHEF in Netherlands, and pixel solutions as used by the CMS detector upgrade.
• M. Gazdzicki and H. Stroeble from the University of Frankfurt (project partner) travelled to RBI between 10.10.2011. and 15.10.2011. to exchange knowledge on topics of silicon detectors for the purpose of the NA61 vertex upgrade. Both of them are leading persons in the NA61 experiment, and experts for detectors involved in NA61.
• J. Luetić visited PSI between 12th and 19th March 2012. The goal of this visit was to start collaboration between our Institute and CMS Pixel group which should result in bringing and testing Pixel hardware in our facilities. During the visit, some basic technical introduction was made and the rest of the visit was aimed towards getting practical knowledge for Pixel offline data analysis.
• T. Antičić visited PSI between 12th and 14th March 2012. He visited PSI to get knowledge on the CMS Pixel Detector system. PSI played a leading role in the design, construction and operation of the CMS pixel detector and PSI scientists have a long track record of successful construction and operation of pixel detectors in earlier particle physics experiments. During this stay at PSI, he got introduced to the overall system of the CMS Pixel detector and the needed laboratory infrastructure for their development.
• T. Antičić visited University of Manchester between 14th and 16th March 2012. He was introduced to their activities on silicon strip and pixel detectors, including related hardware and software produced locally. They are very active at the CERN ATLAS detector at LHC. They accepted his proposal to visit RBI in order to check for a possibility to use RBI Tandem Accelerator Facility for detector testing.
• J. Luetić visited PSI between 23rd April and 4th May 2012. During this stay at PSI, she was introduced to the work with the silicon pixel detector setup under the leadership of dr. Urs Langenegger. She focused her efforts to learn how to work with one detector module, equivalent to the module that will be delivered to our laboratory at the RBI.
• V. Brigljević visited CERN between 27th and 29th April 2012. During his travel to Switzerland between 26th April and 2nd May 2002, he visited CERN (27-29 April) and PSI (29.4. – 2.5.). During the stay at CERN, he discussed with CMS pixel detector experts there about their experience with the detector and related instrumentation.
• S. Szilner visited CAEN between 4th and 8th May 2012 in order to exchange know-how and experience on Si detectors with collaborators from the GANIL Laboratory and the group working on VAMOS spectrometer. She attended the testing of the Si based focal plane detector at the VAMOS spectrometer in order to evaluate the possibility of the full stopping of the heavy ion in the different energy range, concentrating at the lower energy branch in the inverse kinematic.
• T. Antičić visited University of Frankfurt between 1st and 13th June 2012. He visited PD partner Marek Gazdzicki, spokesperson of NA61 experiment at CERN, and discussed with him and his colleague Anar Rustam about various technologies that could be used for NA61 experiment.
• T. Antičić visited University of Frankfurt between 1st and 3rd August 2012. This visit was continuation of the previous visit to our partner Marek Gazdzicki, spokesperson of NA61 experiment at CERN, realized in June 2012. Discussions started during the June visit continued in order to clarify remaining issues, especially in relation to GridPix and CMS pixel silicon technologies.
• D. Mekterović visited CERN between 20th and 29th September 2012. One of the goals of the CMS group at RBI, which is fostered by Particle Detectors project, is to take a significant responsibility within the collaboration for testing and installing silicon pixel detector modules in the future upgrades. The group has been especially focused on studies that could be done on test modules at RBI. A necessary first step in any such study is a detailed understanding of workings and performance of the test modules established by a set of testing and calibrating procedures. During this visit he for the first time acquired a hands-on experience on these testing and calibrating procedures.
• L. Grassi visited Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay between 14th and 30th October 2012. Practical training event was organized in real experimental environment at the one of the largest European accelerator laboratories, Institut de Physique Nucleaire Orsay. Practical work was performed with different set-ups of silicon detector arrays and various electronics units for detector signal processing (preamplifiers, amplifiers, discriminators, logic units for trigger signal, VME ADCs), measurements of the detector array response on ions of different mass and charge (from hydrogen to oxygen nuclei), as well as transfer of knowledge on practical usage of this scientific instrumentation and tools and techniques for the analysis of the data obtained from these detectors. There were many troubles with the ion beam accelerator during the event. For all these reasons all objectives could not be achieved during the planned duration. Fortunately, the laboratory management had a lot of understanding and allowed for additional days just after the execution of all other planned activities at the accelerator. This was the reason for the next visit to the same laboratory shortly after this visit.
• L. Grassi visited Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay between 6th and 12th November 2012. This was continuation of the previous travel to Orsay, as given above. Due to the problems explained the event was extended to this period. This made possible to achieve all the objectives of this on-the-job practical training.
• J. Luetić visited CERN between 2nd and 9th December 2012. The first LHC long shutdown was planned to begin at the end of 2012 and lasts for two years. Pixel General meeting was held in December in order to review various aspects of Pixel detector performance and operations. This visit was used as an opportunity to meet with several key persons within Pixel group to see how Croatian group can be involved in this shutdown and upgrade period. It is agreed we should participate in radiation damage estimation in Pixel detector, as well as in detector recommissioning in September 2013.
• D. Mekterović visited CERN between 28th February and 4th March 2013. This visit to CERN allowed him to share and exchange knowledge he gained during tests at RBI CMS pixel detector modules with experts at CERN. This interaction allowed him to better understand and interpret my collected data. In conclusion, this sharing and exchange of practical know-how will allow him to better design and perform experiments necessary to properly test CMS pixel detector modules at RBI.
• T. Mijatović visited INFN-LNL between 20th and 27th May 2013. Visiting LNL allowed her to gain knowledge and experience in usage of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detector (DSSD). In cooperation with groups from LNL, Universities of Birmingham and Catania, as well as RBI, she received valuable training on utilization of DSSD. Among other activities, she actively participated in mounting, geometry optimization, cabling, testing and noise reduction of the aforementioned arrays.
• L. Prepolec visited INFN-LNL between 20th and 27th May 2013. Visiting LNL allowed him to gain knowledge and experience in usage of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detector (DSSD). He received valuable training on utilization of DSSD and greatly enhanced his knowledge in usage of DSSDs.
• N. Soić visited INFN-LNL between 20th May and 4th June 2013. Within WP2-Silicon Detectors, on the job training was organized in real experimental conditions with several partners at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. It was attended by researchers and PhD students from LNL-INFN, Laboratory Nazionali del Sud – INFN Catania, University of Birmingham UK and University of Huelva Spain. Senior researchers of these groups gave the lectures and demonstrated practical work. University of Birmingham and University of Huelva are partners at the Particle Detectors project. The event was successful. The realized duration allowed for detailed measurements with various detector set-ups, for detailed explanations of the data analysis steps and practical work on data analysis. A lot of experience and skills of involved researchers was shared and transferred between the attendants.
• N. Skukan visited INFN-LNL between 20th and 27th May 2013. On the job training was organized in real experimental conditions with several partners. In this respect his visit helped him to learn about electronic setups and chains for better signal to noise ratio and better quality triggering. He also exchanged knowledge through discussions on different ways to overcome known problems with this type of detectors and discussion on preparing measurements to better understand their behaviour.
• N. Soić visited University of Birmingham between 17th and 22nd November 2013 and worked with Prof. Martin Freer, and senior researchers Dr. Carl Wheldon and Dr. Neil Curtis. We acquired, using funding of this project, annular silicon strip detectors. The Birmingham group uses annular strip detectors regularly in their experiments. Their experience and knowledge on this type of the detectors was very useful in designing and building of our new array. During this visit we looked together for improvements in the mechanical design and discussed the first data collected during the tests performed at the RBI.
• N. Soić visited University of Huelva between 7th and 12th January 2014 and worked with Prof. Ismael Martel Bravo and his collaborators. They explained him details of their recent work on the testing and development of the new silicon detectors and associate electronics. They discussed some sample data from our recently performed experiments with emphasis on improvements required in silicon detectors and electronics to increase quality of the data. During his visit to University of Huelva, he was involved in some test of the detectors and electronics.
• L. Propolec visited University of Birmingham between 12th and 18th January 2014. This visit allowed him to share recent experience on details of double sided silicon strip detector characteristics relevant for nuclear physics, especially thick gas targets. Several approaches from our and the Birmingham group were compared, as well as the role of Monte Carlo methods and the way to adopt them.
• G. Polarolo from University of Torino visited RBI between 11th and 15th June 2013. He is a leading expert in the field of the nuclear reactions. He gave the talk with the title: A semi-classical model for multi-nucleon transfer and fusion reactions in heavy ion collisions, which was adjusted to the post-graduate student level. In addition he installed the GRAZING code at the local computer and gave a practical instructions and demonstrations about its use. The GRAZING code is extremely important in the planning of the needed beam time both for the detector testing and measurements whenever heavy-ion beams are used.
• D. Ackerman from University of Frankfurt visited RBI between 12th and 14th September 2013. Dr. Ackermann is a leading expert in the super-heavy element research. He gave the talk with the title: Paving the way to the island of stability super-heavy element research at GSI and beyond. The new scattering chamber, dedicated to the detector testing, was presented to Dr.sc. Ackermann. We discussed the possibility and experimental requirements for the in-beam tests of detectors which are presently developing at GSI.
1.5 Silicon Workshop
The workshop on silicon detectors was organized within WP2 in Split between 8 and 10 October 2012. Initially the workshop was planned for May 2012 (month 22) at the RBI. However, it was moved to Split and postponed for October 2012 (month 27), to be scheduled immediately after the international conference ‘’LHC days in Split’’, which was held between 1–6 October in Split, and attended by many world experts in the field of silicon detectors and by local participants, members of the Particle Detectors project. The Workshop was held at MedILS, the Mediterranean Institute for Life Sciences in Split, which offers some infrastructure for the organization of such events, located in a beautiful setting. This stimulated environment offered an ideal venue for high quality presentations and very good informal interactions between the workshop participants. Total cost of this workshop was 17343.98 €.
1.6 Employment/staff effort
Laura Grassi was employed on 20th April 2011 and stayed with us until the project end. Total staff effort related to WP2 for the whole project duration was 50.88 person months, of which 33.40 person months were related to the expert employment and the rest 17.48 person months to the permanent staff effort.
2. Work package 3 (WP3): Strengthening the diamond detector R&D capabilities
The particular objectives of WP3 were:
• procurement of state-of-the-art diamond detectors and associated electronics for future R&D activities,
• education and training of personnel in use of the equipment.
Realization started during the first project year. Delays in the employment of the expert (in addition to the expert’s partial use in WP4) introduced some delays in implementation of other tasks within this work package, but we managed to realize all the planned tasks and achieved the planned objectives. Below we summarize the achievements obtained under this work package.
2.1 Procurement state-of-the-art diamond detectors and associated electronics for future R&D activities
Realization started during the first reporting period, when the following equipment/materials were obtained:
• DBA-4 broadband preamplifiers (2083 €)
• Canberra preamplifiers (9526 €), CAEN NIM preamplifier bin (6328 €)
• Auxiliary electronics: Keithley 6487 + KUSB-488B power supply (3884 €), CAEN High
• voltage source (7459 €)
• Various material costs: electronic consumables (283 € and 309 €).
Procurement activities of some other items started during the first period, but actual delivery was realized later in the second reporting period.
Regarding the detectors, it was planned to acquire mono crystalline and polycrystalline materials for diamond detectors of different sizes and thicknesses, materials/equipment for detector preparation and testing (metallization of electrodes-lithography, contacts and bonding), and then materials/equipment related to mechanics, housings, and holders.
We purchased the following mono crystalline and polycrystalline materials for diamond detectors:
- Cividec single crystal detectors, (5 x 5 mm, 2 pcs.),
- Element Six diamond plates of different sizes (squares of 2-10 mm, thicknesses 300 – 500 m): electronic quality single crystals (5 pcs.), electronic quality poly-crystalline (1 pc.), low cost optical quality (20 pcs.)
for the total cost of 18076.83 €.
Since the availability of diamond detectors has been greatly reduced worldwide due to seizure of principal diamond detector supplier (DDL - Diamond Detectors Ltd.), activities were concentrated on the improvement of internal capabilities for production of ready-to-use diamond detector systems from commercially available diamond plates. Here the essential was the role of the expert employed under the project, Fabio Schirru, who transferred his knowledge to the local staff on the related use of the existing sputtering coater, workshop equipment available locally and the PCB mill procured through the project under WP5. He organized a series of practical exercises which resulted with the assembly of several detector systems of 3 x 3 mm size. The assembled detectors were then used to train testing procedures on such detectors. The characteristics of these detectors are comparable to previously commercially available detectors supplied by DDL as well as with characteristics of the larger (5 x 5 mm) procured CIVIDEC detector.
In house assembly of detector systems requires procurement of different materials such as connectors and conductors as well as devices for testing. In addition to already existing equipment for testing at RBI, electronics testing modules supplied through other work packages, we have also procured luminescence spectrometer HR4000 from Ocean Optics that is now used for testing impurities and defects in diamond using ion luminescence technique. The cost was 6597.34 €.
Regarding the readout electronics and supporting equipment and instrumentation, it was planned to acquire items like broadband preamplifiers, spectroscopic preamplifiers, auxiliary electronics such as discriminators, logic modules, signal converters and power supplies, and various materials like cables, connectors and adapters.
Until the end of the project we have purchased:
- FAST ComTec NIM BINs and modules
- CIVIDEC preamplifiers
- Belmet, Chipoteka, Helmut Singer Electronic voltage sources and pulsers
- Kryptonic motorizrd linear translator stage
for the total cost of 16573.84 €.
These commercial modules are essential for building modular setups for energy and timing spectroscopy using diamond detectors. In addition we have also procured different materials (electronic components, connectors, vacuum feed-troughs and similar) essential for building customized pulse processing modules needed for cases when in vacuum pre-amplification is needed. The cost of these materials was 8229.13 €.
Several diamond sensors were assembled during organized on-the-job practical exercises using the materials and equipment purchased. All the equipment, materials and instruments purchased have been tested and commissioned.
2.2 Procurement Summary
The total cost of equipment and materials for WP3 for the whole project period is 79349.06 €. At the beginning of the project it was planned that the total cost for equipment and materials for WP3 would be 96000 €. The actual cost at the project end is lower for 16650.94 €.
2.3 Exchange of visits with partner organizations
The following exchanges of visits with our partners were realized as part of WP3:
• M. Jakšić and N. Skukan visited GSI, Germany between December 11th – 13th 2011 and participated in the CARAT Workshop dedicated to diamond detectors development. This opportunity was used to discuss possible solutions for ordering diamond detectors for particular applications at RBI.
• M. Kiš visited GSI, Germany between 3rd to 7th October 2011 in order to be trained in the application of FPGA chips to measure time with very good time resolution of 10 ps. In our partner institution GSI Darmstadt, they have developed such an electronic device, FPGA TDC. Our aim was to get acquainted with it and its operation, to evaluate its possible application in timing measurements with diamond detectors, and to get introduced to complexity of implementation of such device on an arbitrary FPGA chip.
• E. Vittone from University of Torino, steering committee member, stayed at RBI between November 8th – 12th 2011 to discuss specific topics of diamond detectors development and testing. . In particular, he discussed with the local RBI staff about possibilities for the use of diamond detectors as position sensitive devices for charged particle detection in nuclear physics and interdisciplinary experiments. He also presented a seminar on the basics of IBIC (Ion beam induced charge) technique.
• M. Jakšić visited University of Torino between 5th and 12th February 2012. Following a decision that diamond detectors would be assembled at RBI from commercially available crystals, this travel was used to explore possibilities for such activities at RBI on the basis of experience in contact evaporation that our partners from Torino already have. We also explored the use of simulation software to calculate implications of high ionization densities on the properties of real detectors. Also, using laboratory alpha sources, an Agilent Acqiris 1013 charge transient digitizer was used to demonstrate how such equipment could be used to test diamond detector properties.
• M. Kiš visited GSI between 21st February and 18th March 2012 to exchange of knowledge on diamond detectors with the focus on the production of metallic electrodes for diamond detectors. There are many prescriptions related to this procedure that are usually a result of painstaking trial-and-error approach. In GSI Darmstadt, the metallization is performed using sputtering and evaporation techniques. Various shadow-masks are used to obtain desired electrode pattern on the detector. At the moment GSI does not have its own photolithographic equipment, so in order to produce very fine electrodes one has to go to another institutes.
• F. Schirru visited GSI between 16th and 18th December 2012. In order to exchange know-how and experience on diamond detector development and assembly with collaborators from the GSI and other prominent European R&D institutions, he visited GSI, Darmstadt, Germany in coincidence with the Advanced Diamond Assemblies (ADAMAS) Workshop. In the focus of his interests was to exchange knowledge important for assembly of diamond detectors from commercially available crystals and in this respect important topic of contact evaporation technology.
• V. Grilj visited GSI between 16th and 19th December 2012. In order to exchange know-how and experience on diamond detector development with collaborators from the GSI and other prominent European R&D institutions, he visited GSI, Darmstadt, Germany between 16th and 18th December 2013 in coincidence with the “Advanced Diamond Assemblies, 1st ADAMAS Workshop”. The aim of his attendance was: (i) to learn and gain experience regarding modern advanced diamond detector assemblies from the top-class scientists in this field; (ii) to make contacts in the community which could result in future collaborations.
• N. Skukan visited GSI between 16th and 19th December 2012. In order to exchange know-how and experience on diamond detector development with collaborators from the GSI and other prominent European R&D institutions, he visited GSI and attended “1stAdvanced Diamond Assemblies (ADAMAS) Workshop”. He gained information about the developments during last year in the field of diamond detector work and established a few new informal collaborations for detectors testing.
• N. Skukan visited University of Torino between 5th and 10th March 2013. He visited group of prof. Ettore Vittone and got overview of instrumentation and testing procedures applied on diamond as material for novel detectors. Their collaborators at the Institute for Metrology host optical characterization equipment needed to understand types of defects and purity of diamonds. Researchers at the institute explained methods they use and possibilities for using diamond as optical device and detector by using luminescent centres in irregularities of diamonds. Several electrical characterization instruments as well as heat treatment devices (vacuum ovens etc.) were shown to me at University of Torino.
• N. Skukan visited University of Manchester between 25th and 28th June 2013. The informal collaboration between Manchester University and RBI lasts already for some time. The 3D diamond workshop was organized by our collaborators to put together people involved in development and testing of these novel devices. Experienced scientists from about ten institutions gave their contributions through talks and discussions from all aspects of production, testing and use of such types of detectors. N. Skukan contributed with a talk about TRIBIC testing of detector samples produced in Manchester. This travel gave him the opportunity to learn about detector technology, discuss testing methods but also to advertise RBI facility for possible future collaborations.
• S. Fazinić visited University of Manchester during his visit to UK between 22nd and 27th September 2013. During his visit to UK partners, at University of Manchester he visited particle physics group. Stefano de Capua showed their laboratories for detector production and testing, including the laboratory for the development of diamond detectors and clean room for the production of detectors for Super NEMO experiment. During the last day of visit in the morning before return to Zagreb Centre for Fusion Research – CCFE in Culham was visited where we discussed about possible future collaborations based on the use of our Tandem Accelerator Facility for fusion research.
• M. Jakšić visited GSI between 15th and 17th December 2013. During the two-day visit at GSI and under the guidance of our project partner Christian Schmidt he visited several experimental setups of GSI facilities (e.g. HADES experiment) that are using diamond detectors. In discussions with other GSI members (Eleni Berderman, Mladen Kis, etc.), possible topics of future involvement of RBI capabilities in projects that GSI is coordinating were also considered. He also participated in ADAMAS workshop on diamond detectors.
• D. Chokheli visited GSI between 15th and 18th December 2013 in coincidence with the Advanced Diamond Assemblies (ADAMAS) Workshop in order to exchange know-how and experience on diamond detector development with collaborators from the GSI and other prominent European R&D institutions. He actively participated at the workshop and presented performance of the RBI new detector testing chamber, as well as the characteristics of diamond detectors assembled at RBI.
• A. Oh and I. Haughton from University of Manchester visited RBI between 27th November and 1st December 2012. He visited RBI together with his colleague Iain Haughton in order to conduct practical exercise of testing of novel type of diamond detector developed at the University of Manchester at the RBI ion microprobe using Ion Beam Induced Current technique. They described to the RBI staff novel 3D diamond detector technology. Then the use of IBIC was demonstrated to map charge collection efficiency over the sample materials.
• E. Vittone from University of Torino visited RBI between 3rd and 8th February 2013. He visited RBI in order to conduct practical exercise of testing of novel type of diamond detectors developed at the University of Torino at the RBI ion microprobe using Ion Beam Induced Current (IBIC) technique. Prof Vittone described to the RBI staff his theoretical modelling of IBIC experimental data. Then the use of IBIC was demonstrated to map charge collection efficiency over his sample materials.
• J. Pietraszko from GSI visited RBI between 13th and 16th March 2013. He visited RBI in order to conduct practical exercise of testing of novel type of diamond detectors developed at the GSI for HADES experiment using Ion Beam Induced Current (IBIC) technique at the RBI ion microprobe. On 15th March he made presentation to the RBI staff about "In-medium hadron properties measured with HADES". The use of IBIC was demonstrated to map charge collection efficiency over his diamond detector.
• F. Schirru from GSI visited RBI between 19th and 22nd September 2013. Fabio Schirru was expert employed through Particle Detectors project. He left RBI in July 2013 to join GSI, our partner institution on the project, to work there on diamond detector development and testing for high energy nuclear physics experiments. We agreed with him to continue our collaboration. In this respect he visited us in September 2013 to exchange knowledge he gained in GSI on the topics of joint interest and to finalize his remaining activities.
• A. Oh from University of Manchester visited RBI between 11th and 13th December 2013. This is continuation of his visit from December 2012. This time A. Oh came with the advanced 3D diamond detector developed in Manchester. This material was used for practical exercise of mapping charge collection efficiency by IBIC. This time the use of Time Resolved Ion Beam Current (TRIBIC) techniques at the ion-microbeam was also demonstrated.
• F. Schirru from GSI visited RBI between 28th November and 2nd December 2013. This is continuation of his visit from 19th to 22nd September 2013. Fabio Schirru was expert employed through Particle Detectors project. He left RBI in July 2013 to join GSI, our partner institution on the project, to work there on diamond detector development and testing for high energy nuclear physics experiments. We agreed with him to continue our collaboration. In this respect he visited us three more times until January 2014 to exchange knowledge he gained in GSI on the topics of joint interest and to finalize his remaining activities under Particle Detectors project.
2.4 Diamond Workshop
The Diamond detector workshop was organized between the 7th and 10th May 2012. The Workshop was held in Hotel Jezero, at Plitvice lakes national park. Initially the workshop was planned for December 2011 at the RBI. However, it was postponed for May 2011 and moved to Plitvice Lakes to enable its joint organization with the Croatian-Japanese bilateral project: Development of high energy ion microbeam technology for novel applications of diamond, which funded participants of 4 Japanese scientists, who showed high interests to share their experience with the European colleagues. The workshop was also announced through the other two FP7- Infrastructure projects, namely SPIRIT (Support for public and industrial research using ion beam technology) and ENSAR (European nuclear science and applications research). In such a way the impact of the workshop was increased since it was attended by experts from the project collaborating institutions (GSI, University of Torino, University of Manchester), another experts from the prominent European, Japanese and USA institutions, and local RBI participants, including senior staff, students and post-docs of the Division of Experimental Physics (DEP) and some other divisions DEP collaborates closely with on joint experiments. This very successful workshop was attended by 30 participants, of which 13 international experts. Total cost of this workshop was 13894.68 €.
2.5 Employment/staff effort
D. Chokheli was employed on 19th September 2011 and stayed with us until the project end. Since the expert for WP4 was not employed in time he was involved in the activities related to WP4 (vacuum chamber) but for the sake of simplicity we count all his time under this work package. Total staff effort related to WP3 for the whole project duration was 39.15 person months, of which 28.4 person months were related to the expert employment and the rest 10.75 person months to the permanent staff effort. This a bit less than the staff effort for this work package planned before the start of the project.
3. Work package 4 (WP4): Assembling testing facilities for silicon and diamond detectors
The particular objectives of WP4 are:
• to assemble a vacuum chamber for detector testing
• to assemble a laser testing unit for detector testing
• to educate personnel in use of the equipment.
This work package is related to the setup of sophisticated detector testing facilities for silicon and diamond based particle detectors. It includes the design and construction of a vacuum chamber connected to the accelerator beam line for in-beam tests, as well as a table-top laser-testing unit.
Main achievement of this work package is improved potential for testing and commissioning of detector systems. The testing facilities will be used both for equipment developed at RBI and for instrumentation of our collaborators. These will greatly increase the research impact in existing international collaborations and for involvement in new collaborations.
The problems with the employment of the expert introduced some delays in implementation of other tasks within this work package, but we managed to realize all the planned tasks and achieved the planned objectives during the second reporting period.
Below we summarize the achievements obtained under this work package.
3.1 Activities related to vacuum chamber test station design and procurement
When we started with the procurement, we first initiated purchase of the beam-guiding system and these components were delivered during the first reporting period for the cost of 10841.41 €. We contacted several companies about production of the main chamber parts. The best offer was received by Vakuum Praha and they produced and delivered these parts for the total cost of 20577.11 €. The HiPace™ 700 turbo-pump (Pfeiffer Vacuum) in chain with ACP 40 (SD) dry pump as fore-pump (Adixen) was chosen to achieve required vacuum up to 10-6 mbar. The total cost of the pump with necessary components for proper installation was 18029.83 €. The chamber is equipped with the set of the dual range vacuum gauges PKR-251 with control unit TPG-262 (Pfeiffer Vacuum) to establish the vacuum level monitoring. Total cost of these components with necessary accessories was 6534.14 €.
The electro-pneumatic gate valves allow full remote control over vacuum for the PD chamber. One such valve based on KF63 (model PA44-0001, VAT) is installed on the beam line at the entrance of the chamber to separate in two volumes the beam line and the chamber itself. Another gate valve based on CF160 (model CE44-0005, VAT) is installed between chamber and turbo-pump to separate the turbo-pump and chamber. Additional set of electromagnetic bellows sealed valves (model SA0150EVCF, Kurt J. Lesker) installed to separate the fore-pump in one hand and the chamber and the fore-pump and turbo-pump in the second hand. This technique allows us to pump very fast (around of 5 minute) the vacuum up to 10-1 mbar with dry pump and only after to start to pump the 10-6 mbar vacuum with the turbo pump. We had to order additional set of the vacuum components to complete and to secure properly the chamber: gaskets, viewports, manual angle valves, various flanges, flanges with feedtroughs, adapters, beam pipeline, etc. All these items were ordered from different companies (Vakuum Praha, MDC Vacuum, Kurt J. Lesker, Pfeiffer Vacuum i.e. SCAN), altogether for the cost of 27346.92 €. The cost of the cablings and related components purchased from Altpro was about 1571.65 €. To allow initial detector testing an AMPTEK low-noise preamplifier was obtained for the cost of about 1695.98 €. V, Ti and Cr absorber foils were purchased from GoodFellow for about 1660.79 €.
The high precision slits system (model SLT-100-10-V-N-TU-T-2PH, from Advanced Design Consulting USA, Inc.) was installed on the entrance of the FP7 PD chamber to provide the beam profile adjustment and it costs was about 8209.65 €. Two ultra-high resolution day/night vision cameras (model SCB-2000, Samsung) with the total cost of 351.99 € were purchased for installation on the chamber to perform fine adjustments of the beam position, and for chamber visualization as well. The chamber is equipped with 4D-mainpulator: 3L linear translation stages with 200x100x50 mm travel distance “+” 1R rotation stage. The option to increase the number of the axis up to 5D by adding the goniometer is available as well. This manipulator is in detail discussed in a corresponding deliverable D4.5. and here only brief description follows.
Assembly of the goniometer consists of following main parts (all stages from OWIS GmbH):
1. LTM-80 200 mm linear translation stage for X-axis (perpendicular to the beam, horizontal plane);
2. LTM-60 50 mm linear translation stage for X-axis (perpendicular to the beam, vertical plane);
3. LTM-80 100 mm linear translation stage for Y-axis (parallel to the beam line);
4. DMT-65 360º rotation stage, horizontal plane;
5. Retainer for fast installation or release of the detector/target;
6. Additional goniometer in range of -12º to +12º (model MOGO-65) for the rotation in vertical plane, should be installed using the retainer;
7. Various mount adapters.
It is installed on the 'B-plate' inside of the testing vacuum chamber. To provide the remote control we had to order the controller (model PS-90 for linear stages and model PS-10 for rotate stages) and the software support from OWIS GmbH. The total cost of the stages with controllers, power supply and the software was 18307.36 €. It was tested by performing experiments with diamond detectors, CMS pixel detectors, with single silicon and with double sided silicon strip detector.
The stand with adjustable table for the chamber was designed also and then ordered from a local company (M-ART) for the cost of 1071.55 €. About 953.93 € was the cost of additional small components and chamber adaptations done by the PSN company, and about 330.52 € was spent for the necessary screws and related materials. The table was designed having in mind an aim to have the possibility of properly tailoring it to the beam line: four supporting table screws allow to lift up/down the table on vertical plane and to rotate in same time slightly along the horizontal axis; and eight table driving screws are used to fix the table at horizontal plane and to rotate slightly along the vertical axis.
Power supplies from KEPCO for the cost of 17796.65 € were purchased to run ion-optic devices positioned in between the accelerator and the chamber for ion beam adjustments to the chamber. The other minor costs are summed to about 1616.23 €.
The chamber is placed as second chamber after the IAEA chamber at so called “IAEA line” and, in such way, is connected to the accelerator beam line for in-beam tests (Figure 4). All the necessary accessories and equipments, including goniometers, were installed as for real experiments on detectors with proton beam or by using radioactive sources. Several trial experiments were performed to test the chamber in real work. In conclusion, the first objective of the WP4 “Assembling testing facilities for silicon and diamond detectors” is fully achieved. The PD chamber is designed from scratch as modular unit (Figure 5). It is flexible and configurable according to the corresponding task, tailored to the existing accelerator experimental facility and assembled from numerous complex vacuum chamber elements and accessories. The chamber has been used in trial testing experiments on various detectors and is ready for use on various experiments using the proton or light ion beams in vacuum or, with the beam extractor foil, in a required medium (air, helium, etc.) for experimental research activities.
3.2 Laser testing system
Part of the project is the test of the silicon detectors with a Laser system. For that purpose, a set of two diode pulsed lasers with different characteristics, together with translational and rotational motorized stages have been purchased. More concretely, the first laser head set consist of:
• a 30 picosecond pulsed diode infrared laser head at wavelength 1070 nm,
• an external digital control unit with repetition rate from single shot to 1 MHz,
• a single mode fiber connector (coupling optics) with FC/APC – FC/PC type of connection,
• a fiber collimator with 11mm focal length, aspheric lens, FC/PC reception which produces collimated beam diameter 3 mm.
To achieve a more focused beam, we purchased a set of micro focus aspheric lenses with focal length of 18 mm mounted in the fiber collimator to focus the spot size to about 12 μm at 16 mm distance.
The infrared wavelength (1070 nm) is able to penetrate through 800 μm of silicon. This means that for the case of the silicon pixel detectors this wavelength acts like a high energy particle. The total cost of that system was 8314 €. The second laser is diode pulsed (30 psec) red laser head at wavelength of 670 nm. The purpose for the second laser head is that with this wavelength we are able to investigate the detector surface response because the penetration depth of this wavelength in silicon is only 4 μm. The second laser head cost was 3222 €.
A set of x-y-z motorized translational stages and one rotational stage was purchased and assembled during the second period. This set of the stages came together with a set of 4 microcontrollers. The x-y-z combination together with the rotational stage (goniometer) is needed for the manipulation of the laser heads. The microcontrollers together with the mechanical parts of the stages provide a step control with resolution of 10 μm in each direction. The total cost of the system purchased from Kryptonics was 5518.86 €. All the components were assembled, the system was tested and commissioned, and is ready for use. Details are given in the submitted deliverable D4.3.
3.3 Ion Microprobe upgrade
According to the suggestion given by the Steering committee at the kick of meeting at the project start, it was decided that as part of the chamber construction for detector testing the existing nuclear microprobe beam line should be upgraded for detector testing as well in addition to the design and commissioning of the new detector testing chamber. In this line, the extension of the microprobe was constructed to allow measurements on objects in air with focused scanned heavy ions. The system was constructed and tested and is ready for use.
3.4 Procurement Summary
The total cost of equipment and materials for WP4 for the whole project period is 152805.56 €. At the beginning of the project it was planned that the total cost for equipment and materials for WP4 would be 129500 €. Therefore the actual cost at the project end is higher for 23305.56 €.
3.5 Exchange of visits with partner organizations
The following exchanges of visits with our partners were realized as part of WP4:
• T. Anticic went to Bristol University between 3rd and 5th July 2011. One day was dedicated to WP4 matters. The Bristol group performs laser testing on silicon sensors as used by the CMS experiment. This is something that is part of the tasks of WP4, and T. Anticic was shown in detail how it works. The laser they are using is Advanced Laser Diode Systems PiL067SM S/N 0337A. It is a picosecond laser. Bristol made a mechanical setup to hold the laser in a vertical position, so they can focus it on the pixels in the chamber. RBI would probably prefer a horizontal arrangement, so it could be used for the Van de Graaf microbeam setup.
• T. Antičić visited University of Bristol between 16th and 17th March 2012. There he discussed about technical details of their laser setup for detector testing, readout system and their experiences in utilization of such setups for testing various detectors. This is important since the RBI purchased the components for the laser testing based on the existing setup at University of Bristol.
• D. Španja visited University of Manchester between 13th and 18th March 2012. He visited Particle Physics Group of the University of Manchester where he was introduced to their local activities and instrumentation which they use for testing various detector systems. They also showed him their spark chamber for cosmic ray detection. This is important since it was decided that we would produce our spark chamber for cosmic ray detection on the basis of their design.
• V. Brigljević visited PSI between 29th April and 2nd May 2012. During his travel to Switzerland between 26th April to 2nd May 2002 he visited CERN (27-29 April) and PSI (29.4. – 2.5.). During this stay at PSI (together with Jelena Luetić and Davit Chokheli), we got introduced to the laboratory setup for testing of CMS Pixel detector modules. With the help of PSI experts, we setup the small system consisting of a pixel module, test board and data acquisition system that would later be shipped and installed at RBI.
• D. Chokheli visited PSI between 23rd April and 4nd May 2012. Under the leadership of dr. Urs Langenegger he got introduced to the work with the silicon pixel detector module equivalent to the one that will be delivered to RBI. With the help of PSI experts, we setup the small system consisting of a pixel module, test board and data acquisition system that would later be shipped and installed at RBI.
• N. Soić visited University of Huelva and IMB-CNM between 22nd and 30th November 2012. The aim of his visit to Huelva was to learn and gain experience regarding silicon detector testing. On 27th November Tome Antičić joined him at Huelva. On the return to Zagreb they stopped at Instituto de Microelectronica Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM), leading Spanish centre for research with silicon sensors, detectors and associated electronics, with the aim to make contacts in the community which could result in future collaborations and cooperation in order to test silicon detectors and to exchange know-how knowledge in order to use their model of silicon detector testing, with possibility of cooperation and sharing our devices for testing.
• T. Antičić visited University of Huelva and IMB-CNM between 27th and 30th November 2012. He visited the Laboratory for silicon detector testing at University of Huelva and IMB-CNM with the aim to make contacts in the community which could result in future collaborations and cooperation in order to test silicon detectors and to exchange know-how knowledge in order to use their model of silicon detector testing, with possibility of cooperation and sharing our devices for testing.
• N. Poljak visited ETH between 22th and 25th January 2013 in order to exchange know-how and experience on CMS silicon pixel detector development and testing with collaborators from the ETH and PSI institutes. Our partner PSI collaborates with ETH on this topic. There were several aims of the visit: (i) to learn and gain experience regarding the testing setup used to test CMS silicon pixel detectors (and individual chips) in the lab, (ii) to learn and exchange know-how on the readout chip for the new digital version of the pixel detectors and, (iii) to discuss plans for the possible future measurements with the pixel detector either at the Rudjer Boskovic Institute or elsewhere.
• S. Fazinić visited University of Torino between 14th and 19th July 2013 to exchange knowledge on their activities, including overview of instrumentation and testing procedures and development of diamond based detectors/sensors for various applications. He visited also their collaborating laboratories at Instituto Nazionale die Ricerca Metrologica, including ''Laboratorio Pemontese di nanofabricazione a fasci elettronici e ionici'' (Nanofacility Piemonte) with whom Physics Department collaborates. Alessandro Lo Giudice from prof. Vittone group showed him the laboratory instrumentation at the interdisciplinary centre within the ''La Venaria Reale'' center with whom he collaborates. He participated at one day workshop entitled NIS colloquium – IBATO6 ''Advanced Applications in Scanning Probe Microscopy'' organized by the Physics Department (E. Vittone and E. Bernardi) at the NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces) Centre of Exellence of University of Torino. On Thursday 18th July he made presentation related to RBI activities at the Tandem Accelerator Centre and then discussion followed about possible future cooperation.
• J. Forneris from University of Torino visited RBI between 17th and 23rd November 2013. He visited RBI in order to conduct practical exercise of testing novel detector sensing materials developed at the University of Torino at the RBI ion microprobe using Ion Beam Induced Current (IBIC) technique. Heavy ions were used to test radiation hardness of the produced structures. Then the use of IBIC was demonstrated to map charge collection efficiency changes over the sample materials.
• J. Forneris from University of Torino visited RBI between 12th and 17th January 2014 in order to conduct practical exercise of irradiating diamond materials developed by University of Torino by heavy ions from our Tandem accelerators. This is done in order to test radiation hardness and perform radiation based changes in the tested material. Possibilities for future collaborations were discussed.
• F. Schirru from GSI visited RBI between 20th and 23rd January 2014. He was expert employed through Particle Detectors project. He left RBI in July 2013 to join GSI, our partner institution on the project, to work there on diamond detector development and testing for high energy nuclear physics experiments. We agreed with him to continue our collaboration. In this respect he visited us in three occasions. This last visit was related to testing of materials developed at GSI and practical exercise on assembly of diamond sensor from commercially purchased crystal, including evaporation of contacts of knowledge and experience on diamond detectors assembly. Possibilities for future collaborations were discussed.
3.6 Employment/Staff effort
Fabio Schirru started to work on 12th July 2012. He was working with us until 10th July 2013 when he left to work at GSI, our partner institution. He was active in this WP as well as in WP3 on specific tasks related to assemble of diamond detectors. For the sake of simplicity we count all his time under this work package. Nikola Poljak was employed from 1st September 2012 and he stayed with us until 31st July 2013. He worked on testing aspect for silicon pixel detectors. Total staff effort related to WP4 for the whole project duration was 41.12 person months, of which 23 person months were related to the expert employment and the rest 18.12 person months to the permanent staff effort. This a bit less than the staff effort for this work package planned before the start of the project. The main reason for discrepancies is the fact that we couldn’t employ the expert for this work package during the first reporting period and therefore the staff effort related to permanent staff is higher than planned before the project start, while the staff effort related to expert recruitment is lower.
4. Work package 5 (WP5): Strengthening the detector Data Acquisition and process control R&D capabilities
The particular objectives of WP5 are:
• to upgrade the existing detector data acquisition systems
• to upgrade the existing detector control capabilities
• to educate personnel in use of the equipment.
The implementation started at the beginning of the project and continued until the project end. Delays in employment of the experts introduced some delays in implementation of other tasks within this work package but we managed to realize all the planned tasks and achieved the planned objectives.
Below we summarize the achievement obtained under this work package.
4.1 Equipment (hardware and software) and materials
Procurement activities started during the first reporting period, but all the items were delivered, tested and commissioned during the second reporting period. This work package addressed the lack of specialized software and electronics necessary for research and development of detector data acquisition and control systems. These capabilities are necessary for any detector development and testing projects, particularly for more complex detector arrays or systems. This involves the acquisition of new equipment and tools needed for future development of detector data acquisition and process control electronics, as well as the training of the staff on the use of novel detector data acquisition and control systems. The training was achieved through one workshop organized at RBI and with two-way exchange visits of our research staff with experienced staff from European institutions.
To update our printed circuit board (PCB) simulation and design capabilities, the circuit simulation and design software from National Instruments was purchased. NI’s Circuit Design Suit (Multisim, Ultiboard) was selected and purchased for 2343.89 €. The software was installed and in now working. Local staff has been trained to use the software.
For manufacturing of the PCBs we purchased the PCB prototyping plotter for 14447.86 €. The LPKF S63 was procured with RF Tool Box for its ability to manufacture high frequency rated PCBs which will be required for use with the diamond detectors. The plotter was installed and in now working. Local staff has been trained to use it. It has been already used to produce number of specialized PCBs. In support of mechanical construction we also purchased table scissors which can be used to cut large sheets of material for printed circuit boards and thin metal sheets (for the cost of 1410 €).
For manufacturing of unique 3D components related to particular design and development of special parts like boxes, holders, and unique parts needed to hold and connect various electronic and mechanical components of the detector-DAQ systems together we procured 3D printer for the cost of 1521.48 €.
Regarding the PCI bus based DAQ board systems; we purchased the Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA ML605 Evaluation Kit. This will allow us to directly couple experiments to a computer for high speed data acquisition which is required for modern experiments. Additionally, also from Xilinx a similar development kit was purchased with a powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), to be the basis of a DAQ system which will support up to 10 analog input signals though customizable analog to digital converter (ADC) expansion cards which were purchased from 4DSP. In particular, the Avnet Virtex-6 FPGA DSP Kit with AD/DA and 2x 4DSP FMC108 8 Channel 250 MSPS @ 14-bits have been purchased. All the components of the system have been tested and are working and ready for use. The cost of the Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA ML605 and Avnet Virtex-6 FPGA DSP Kits are 4668.39 €. The cost of 2 4DSP FMC108 8 Channel 250 MSPS @ 14-bits units is 6254.68 €.
For programming and controlling FPGAs and FPGA development boards two separate software packages are required: Xilinx integrated software development environment and from Mathworks Matlab/Simulink. The fore mentioned software from Xilinx was provided with the Avent Virtex-6 FPGA DSP Kit with AD/DA mentioned above. Also the software from Gamax based on the Matlab and Simulink environment has been procured for the cost of 5948.91 €. In addition, LabView software was purchased (National Instruments LabView Academic Site License for 7344.20 €).
Fast transient data acquisition system based on NI PXIe-5185 3 GHz, 12.5 GS/s, 8-Bit digitizer was acquired for 30247.60 €. The system was tested and it is now in the regular use.
We enlarged the existing Data Acquisition VME modules by acquisition of the VME crate for 6464.27 €. This crate was tested and is now in regular use. And finally, we obtained all the necessary materials needed in our electronic workshop for the related work, including cables, connectors, adapters (like SMA, UBS, etc.), tools, plugs, sockets, various electronic units-chips, etc. for 10181.45 €.
This work package was realized by the staff of all involved RBI research groups and resulted with increased potential for active development of novel electronics modules for detector DAQ and control systems and greatly improved capabilities for data acquisition and control related to the experimental work at the local accelerator facility.
4.2 Procurement Summary
Altogether in this work package we spent 90732.73 € for procurement of equipment and materials. At the beginning of the project it was planned that the total cost for equipment and materials for WP5 would be 75500 €. Therefore the actual cost at the project end is higher for 15232.73 €.
4.3 Exchange of visits with partner organizations
The following exchanges of visits with our partners were realized as part of WP5:
• N. Soić visited University of Birmingham between October 12th and 18th 2011 with aim to share knowledge and experience on assembling and use of the VME Data Acquisition System for silicon double sided strip detectors DSSD, and on process control system for experimental end-stations, including also practical training at the site. The members of the Birmingham nuclear physics group developed and built Data Acquisition System (DAQ) in collaboration with researchers from Daresbury Laboratory UK. They are now involved in work on new digital DAQ led by Daresbury Laboratory. Birmingham group also built several experimental end-stations at various accelerator facilities equipped with various process control systems for components of the experimental setup. The Birmingham researchers presented the details of their DAQ and process control instrumentation. That was good opportunity for broad discussions about RBI needs for our local facilities at IRB. Advices of the Birmingham researchers on hardware and software components were of great help in designing our local system.
• T. Anticic went to Bristol University between 3rd and 5th July 2011. One half day was dedicated to WP5 matters. Bristol University is a leading partner in the CERN CMS silicon project, so T. Anticic was introduced by dr. Joel Goldstein, faculty member of Bristol and PD steering committee member, to their experimental setups for the CMS silicon detectors, and the related DAQ readout. For that Bristol uses the following FPGA development boards, which PD will consider purchasing: Xilinx Spartan 6 - SP605 and Xilinx Virtex 6 ML605.
• V. Brigljevic went to CERN, between 30.11.2010 and 10.12.2010 with three days devoted to WP5. Since V. Brigljevic participated in the data taking of proton proton collisions with the CMS detector at CERN, he have used this opportunity to get familiar about the data acquisition and data quality monitoring of the Silicon Pixel detector used in CMS.
• T. Anticic went to CERN on 6th and 7th June 2011 (part of 4 day trip at CERN) to become familiar with the NA61 experiment concerning the details of the DAQ/readout that will need to be mastered in order to install the planned silicon vertex detector. Discussions with NA61 staff (M. Gadzinski, H. Stroheble) were made concerning the possible technology solutions, as well as the associated compatibility issues with the DAQ.
• V. Brigljević visited PSI between 12th and 17th March 2012. This trip represented the start of our work on pixel detectors in the context of the CMS Pixel project at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). PSI played a leading role in the design, construction and operation of the CMS pixel detector and PSI scientist have a long track record of successful construction and operation of pixel detectors in earlier particle physics experiments. During this stay at PSI, we got introduced to the overall system of the CMS Pixel detector and the needed laboratory infrastructure for their development. We then got a specific introduction in the software framework for the analysis of pixel data in the CMS experiment, which allowed us to start analyzing these data in the following dates.
• V. Brigljević visited CERN between 18th and 25th March 2012. In continuation with the stay at PSI (March 12-17, 2012), we spent these few days at CERN learning further about the CMS Software environment for the analysis of Pixel detector data.
• J. Luetić visited CERN between 19th and 23th March 2012. In continuation with the stay at PSI (March 12-19, 2012; see corresponding report under WP2), she spent these few days at CERN learning further about the CMS Software environment for the analysis of Pixel detector data.
• V. Brigljević visited CERN between 26th May and 8th June 2012. During this period at CERN, he participated in the operation and data taking of the CMS detector, during which he learnt in particular about operational aspects of pixel detectors and their integration in the data acquisition system of a large particle physics experiment.
• L. Prepolec visited University of Birmingham between 27th May and 1st June 2012. Together with Neven Soić he visited our colleagues from the Nuclear Physics Group at the University of Birmingham. The purpose of the visit was to continue the ongoing work from the visit to the group in 2011. They discussed the properties of DSSD silicon detectors, data acquisition and analysis of data obtained in experiments by such detectors. The cross-sections obtained with these detectors in one experimental run taken as example was analysed by R-matrix analysis, theoretical tool which connects properties of nuclei with measured cross sections. The inner workings of the code, as well as relation of code's output to the measured cross section were discussed. The experience and guidance of prof. M. Freer helped to resolve several practical problems in the ongoing work.
• N. Soić visited University of Birmingham between 27th May and 1st June 2012 together with Lovro Prepolec. The Birmingham researchers explained them details of their recent work on the DAQ and process control instrumentation. This successful visit to the Birmingham group helped them to resolve some challenges in our work with DSSD silicon detectors and helped us to improve our skills in the analysis of the data collected with DSSD silicon detectors.
• J. Luetić visited CERN between 28th May and 20th June 2012. The Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Switzerland is one of the leading accelerators in the field of high energy physics. Our institute has been involved in one of their experiments, CMS, for several years. Now, we are seeking a way to expand our contribution by joining CMS Pixel detector group. This effort already started couple of months before by visiting PSI and participating in pixel offline analysis. The aim of this visit was to get an introduction in Pixel operations and the online part of Pixel detector. One week of training shifts was taken in order to be able to take Pixel detector expert on-call shifts.
• M. Kiš visited GSI between 24th September and 5th October 2012 to exchange the knowledge on new generation of PADI (PreAmplifier-DIscriminator) chips. Those chips were designed for use with RPC detectors; however, they are modified to be used as fast timing chips for the diamond detectors. New generation of chips is optimized so that the variations - chip-to-chip and channel-to-channel -due to the processing technology are reduced. The tests were performed and production was declared successful so additional amount of chips will be ordered in order to be able to supply them to external users. The aim of my visit was to be introduced to chip testing and characterization and to discuss about implementation of dedicated design for a PADI chip optimized for the diamond detector readout.
• N. Soić visited University of Birmingham between 11th and 14th December 2012. The Birmingham researchers explained him details of their recent work on the DAQ and process control instrumentation. They recently started tests with ADCs provided by CAEN as replacements for Silena ADCs, and the results showed that CAEN units can be incorporated in the existing DAQ systems. They built a new DAQ system based on the CAEN ADCs which continue to use MIDAS DAQ software developed at the Daresbury Laboratory. Current challenge is to use simultaneously ADCs of both manufacturers, Silena and CAEN, in the same systems. He was involved in some of the test performed. The RBI group should replace broken Silena ADCs with CAEN units.
• S. Fazinić visited University of Bristol during his visit to UK between 22nd and 27th September 2013. During this visit to UK partners, at University of Bristol he visited HH Wills Physics Laboratory at School of Physics. Joel Goldstein showed local laboratory where they develop components for CMS and future experiments in high energy physics. They discussed about local work on the software for data acquisition based on the FPGA based boards. They also showed their work on application of the technology developed for high energy physics for applications related to detection of contraband materials in transport containers. During the first day of the trip, the Ion Beam Centre of the University of Surrey at Guildford was visited. Possibilities about possible future joint activities in relation to our developed expertise under the Particle Detectors project were discussed.
4.4 DAQ Workshop
The DAQ Workshop was organized within WP5 with the participation of the collaborating institutions GSI Darmstadt and the University of Huelva. The workshop took place on the 4th and 5th of November 2011 at the Rudjer Boskovic Institute (RBI) premises. The chosen primary focus for the workshop was modern DAQ systems and FPGA programming and application in High Energy Physics and nuclear physics experiments. The level of presentations was appropriate for a broader audience consisting not only from the members of Particle Detectors project but also of students and post-docs of the Division of Experimental Physics (DEP) and some other divisions DEP collaborates closely with, such as the RBI Division of Electronics, or the Department of Physics at the University of Zagreb. About 40 RBI members attended the workshop. Detailed information about the workshop implementation is reported in the related Deliverable 5.2 (Workshop report).
4.5 Employment/Staff effort
Vlasios Petousis was employed from 16th June 2011. Unfortunately he left us on 15th June 2012. Since the employment of experts for WP4 was delayed, he was also involved in activities within WP4 and WP2, mainly those related to laser testing and silicon pixel detectors. For the sake of simplicity we count all his time under this work package. Darko Mekterovic was employed on 20th August 2012. In addition to the work related to DAQ and control systems, he was also involved in activities related to testing silicon pixel detectors. For the sake of simplicity we count all his time under this work package. He stayed with us until the project end in January 2014. Total staff effort related to WP5 for the whole project duration was 38.3 person months, of which 29.3 person months were related to the expert employment and the rest 9 person months to the permanent staff effort. This is in good agreement with the planned total staff effort for this work package.
1. Potential impact
The immediate impact of Particle Detectors project is greatly improved research potential of the nuclear and particle physics (NPP) laboratories of the Rudjer Boskovic Institute (RBI) for testing and development of charged particle detector systems, their readout, and their data acquisition and control. In addition to the improved facilities and expertise, the project improved scientific cooperation between members of these laboratories. Apart from an increased contribution to existing collaborations, the successful realisation of the project provides opportunities to enter new collaborations at both national and European level. The upgraded experimental facility is unique in Croatia with potential benefits to the broader scientific community, to the national universities and to the industry.
A summary of immediate and potential impacts follows:
1.1. Better integration of RBI in the European Research Area and in the EC R&D programmes
• RBI involvement in the FP7 infrastructure project SPIRIT, the European ion beam analysis and modification of materials laboratories network, was enhanced since at the end of 2011 the RBI Tandem Accelerator Centre became TNA provider as the first and so far the only such experimental facility in Croatia. This success is for sure partly influenced by the results of the Particle Detectors project. The RBI Tandem Accelerator Centre is one of the two research infrastructures from Croatia present at the map of the Research and Innovation Infrastructures web site of the European Commission: http://ec.europa.eu/research/infrastructures/index_en.cfm?pg=mapri. Thanks to successful provision of TNA services and participation in JRA and networking activities in the SPIRIT project, the LIBI laboratory became core group member of the consortium preparing SPIRIT2 proposal under the HORIZON2020.
• Enhanced involvement in other research infrastructure development. DEP researchers are involved in preparations of proposals for ENSAR2 project. One of the Particle Detectors project staff (Suzana Szilner) became member of the ENSAR2 Steering Committee. All three groups are also working actively on possible involvement in the AIDA2 project proposal.
• Particle Detectors project staff made larger contribution to silicon detector upgrade of the PRISMA detector facility (large acceptance magnetic spectrometer for heavy ions) at the stable ion beam facility INFN-LNL Legnaro, Italy.
• Upgrade of the NA61 heavy ion experiment at CERN. NA61 is a large heavy ion experiment at CERN whose primary mission is the search for a new form of matter, the Quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The upgrade requires a detailed understanding of the geometry of the collision that is not provided by the current experimental setup. The installation of a vertex detector behind the NA61 target would go some way to remedy this situation. Part of this effort would also involve extensive work on the readout and data acquisition of the silicon upgrade. RBI could have an active role in selecting the final design and choice of silicon detectors involved, as well as of the readout and data acquisition technology. The appropriate detector type, design, and properties are still searched for. Radiation hardness testing would also be required.
• Engagement in the upgrade of data acquisition systems or silicon detectors for other experiments at CERN, such as LHC experiments ALICE and CMS. Experimental upgrades at large and complex collaborations such as CMS (thousands of physicists) entail an excellent and practical knowledge of the tasks involved, as well as quality experimental facilities at the home institutes.
• The renewed and upgraded detector equipment enables the assembly of a compact and easily transportable detector system for charged particles, allowing realization of high quality research on the structure of light nuclei and nuclear reactions at both the local Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator facility and at other European accelerator facilities. Most of the experimental work in our collaborations is performed at European accelerator centres at GANIL, Orsay, Catania and recently in Legnaro.
• Upgraded and enhanced research equipment for studies of nuclear reactions important for nuclear astrophysics. LNP staff and the University of Huelva researchers have been involved in the favourably evaluated proposal for collaborative projects under the ESF scheme Eurocores (EuroGENESIS call). Our sub-projects are dedicated to measurements of essential reactions in stellar explosive phenomena. Funds of the ESF project (50000 € per year for LNP staff funded by National Science Foundation) were for PhD student positions and research activities only, and thus complementary to activities of this project. This ESF project started in March 2010 and is successfully implemented.
• Increased participation in the FAIR facility (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) Darmstadt Germany, the world largest nuclear physics project. FAIR is currently in construction phase with expected full completion in 2016. Research program of the facility includes nuclear, particle and atomic physics, interdisciplinary studies and applications. Several research staff of the NPP laboratories are members of the CBM collaboration (Compressed Baryonic Matter) at FAIR working on development of detector systems (resistive plate chambers and time-of-flight wall). The diamond detector system development component of this project could be important for further work on FAIR detectors. The upgraded capability of RBI for development and testing of research equipment enables deeper involvement in R&D for FAIR instrumentation. In fact first tests of diamond detectors for FAIR were already performed at the RBI ion microprobe.
1.2 Setting up of sustainable partnerships between the most competitive RTD entities whilst boosting regional cooperation contributing to socio-economic needs:
• Strengthened partnerships at several levels with the seven prominent European partner institutions
University of Birmingham (School of Physics and Astronomy), UK,
University of Bristol (Department of Physics), UK,
University of Frankfurt, Germany/NA61 experiment, CERN,
University of Huelva, (Department of Applied Physics), Spain,
University of Manchester, (Department of Physics), UK,
University of Torino, (Department of Experimental Physics), Italy,
GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany.
• This project resulted in enhanced experimental capabilities of the local accelerator centre and its increased usage by the RBI collaborators. The advanced detector electronics setup for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics research at RBI, together with the increased research capabilities of the local accelerator facility provided by other projects funded from national and international (IAEA, FP6) sources, provide local researchers a higher level of research independence, increased research reputation and a larger impact in international collaborations.
• The upgraded equipment and gained know-how through this project is available not only to the research groups of the participating RBI laboratories, but also researchers from other RBI divisions and other subunits. Moreover, as there is no similar centre in Croatia, it also serves our national collaborators and other researchers from Universities of Zagreb, Split and Rijeka, and from the Institute of Physics, Zagreb.
• Improved characterisation of advanced materials (such as quantum nano-dots) and their modification due to enhanced ion beam analysis capabilities and state-of-the-art detection systems. This is of great value for materials science groups from RBI, and other Croatian and regional research centres, as evidenced by larger involvement in related activities at the Accelerator Centre and strengthened collaboration with the RBI materials science departments.
• Potentially commercial devices may result from the high technology equipment and well educated staff engaged in the development and construction of the state-of-the-art instrumentation. Examples are electronics control modules for industrial applications, as well as advanced readout and DAQ electronics for research. Such potentially commercial products have already been presented to local companies. Equally important, accumulated equipment and knowledge provide opportunities to serve the government, local political units, other national research institutions and national services, as well as the local industry.
1.3 Upgraded RTD capacity and capability
New researchers: Six experienced researchers in experimental physics and technical sciences were hired within the project. At the end of the project we stayed in close contacts with three of them who found new jobs at our collaborating institutions (INFN – Legnaro, GSI and University of Zagreb) and we expect that they will contribute to our collaborative activities in future. One of the experts went to Dubna and we also expect to establish collaboration.
Training of research staff: Exchange of knowledge, know-how and experience on detector development with collaborators from prominent European institutions resulted in a well educated and skilled staff, able to perform complex R&D work on state-of-the-art detection systems, data acquisition, and control. An important aspect of this project is the policy of sharing know-how across all members of the participating laboratories, and the policy of joint work on large European or local projects, leading to a synergetic effect on the ability to perform large scale and complex research. The training of staff was realized through exchange of visits with partner institutions, three realized workshops, on the job training in real experimental conditions at top European accelerator laboratories, and exchange of knowledge with employed experts.
Improvement of research management: The project increased the research management capabilities of the DEP staff. The project encouraged Members of the Project Management Board and staff from the respective RBI support department assigned to the project to participate at relevant courses or workshops for research managers and to visit prominent European institutions with large number of running FP7 projects to exchange know-how and experience. Several researchers have already gained appreciable knowledge and skills on this topic. One of them (S. Fazinic) is lecturing at the College of Business and Management ‘Baltazar Adam Krcelic’ in Zapresic near Zagreb on the course on ‘Basic entrepreneurship skills in science’.
Scientific equipment: Through this project the NPP laboratories acquired:
• Silicon strip and silicon pixel detectors, and diamond detectors,
• Front-end electronics,
• Data Acqusition systems and their control, with associated software,
• Dedicated vacuum chamber and laser facility for testing detectors,
• Upgraded ion microprobe for in-air testing detector materials,
• Various equipment and materials to improve delivery of ion beams from the accelerator to testing end-stations.
1.4 Quality of research carried out
Researchers of all the NPP laboratories involved in this proposal have already earned appreciable scientific reputation in nuclear and particle physics research including nuclear applications. The competitiveness of their research at the international level is proven by the number of approved and successfully performed experiments at top research facilities worldwide (particle and nuclear physics centres at CERN, GSI, GANIL, UCL Louvain-la-Neuve, INFN accelerator facilities, synchrotron radiation facilities SOLEIL, ELETTRA, SLS), by the number of published scientific papers in high quality journals, and by the number of citations. These collaborative works also include the development, building and testing of novel detector systems and associated read-out and data acquisition electronics. Realization of this project significantly improved capabilities and capacities for these activities, enhancing possibilities for experimental work at RBI, therefore increasing for example contribution of RBI groups in collaborations via hardware development and testing at the RBI for international collaborations.
Unfortunately, due to economic crisis the level of national funding for R&D in Croatia decreased in recent years. In this respect Particle Detectors project had enormous impact to participating groups, enabling them to keep and even increase the level of R&D activities, and to maintain their international collaborations through organization and participation at workshops, attendance at conferences, collaborating at large experiments, increasing involvement in EC funded projects.
2. Main dissemination activities and the exploitation of results
Here we present main dissemination activities and the exploitation of results achieved by the project.
2.1 Participation at the RBI Open Days
The last RBI Open days were organized between 18th and 20th April 2013. The laboratories involved in the Particles Detectors project were very active, by preparing and holding seminars, and by organizing several displays at the Tandem Accelerator Facility. The displays were about: (i) showing to the general public the use of small-model Van de Graaff generator to accelerate table tennis balls, raise people’s hairs, and lighting neon lamps without plugging them into electric network, (ii) demonstrating effects of vacuum and liquid nitrogen to various ordinary objects, and (iii) explaining our research work in a popular and easy to understand way for general public.
2.2 Assembly of the Spark chamber as Cosmic ray detector for demonstration purpose at the future RBI Open Days and other related events
The first step was to scan over the available designs of cosmic rays sparking chambers present at different universities. During the decision-making process the experience and knowledge of experts from our partner institutions was of large importance. Final design was adopted after some discussions with partners from Manchester. According the final design we ordered the chamber parts from various companies. The glass cylinder was ordered from Applied Vacuum Engineering for 760 €. The aluminium plates (25 mm thick for top and base plates and 5 mm thick for electrodes) were ordered from Strojopromet to create the top, base plates and electrodes for the cost of 1400 €.
We ordered different additional components to complete and to secure properly the chamber: gaskets; manual valves suitable for vacuum, manual valves to control gas flow; various flanges/adapters; flanges with feed-troughs to deliver HV pulses to the electrodes; etc. All these items were ordered from different companies (MDC Vacuum, Kurt J. Lesker) and together their cost was 1090 € in total.
Once the body of the chamber was completed and properly secured, we tested the vacuum. Regular oil pump was ordered for about 300 €. To control the vacuum the vacuum gauge was ordered as well for about 265 €. We ordered plastic scintillation disks 300 mm in diameters and 10 mm in thickness for cosmic muon telescope from Saint Gobain Crystals (for the cost of about 720 €) and Hamamatsu MPPC (model S10362-33-100C) as a photon-counting device attached to scintillation plate (for the cost of about 1030 €). The additional components, including the thyristor switch to generate the HV pulse and HD-web camera, were ordered to complete the electronic part of the project for the cost of about 1020 €. The bottles with the nitrogen, neon, mixture of 5% argon with 95% of neon and corresponding flow control valves were ordered to supply the sparking chamber with gas, and the cost was about 620 €.
After assembling, the sparking chamber was commissioned for the first run. The first test was to check the vacuum. The vacuum up to 1.2x10-1 was achieved in 30 minutes and then held it up to 2 weeks with no notes of any leakage. The chamber was filled with nitrogen gas using secured system of the gas pipeline with flow control valves. The vacuum was pumped again and the neon was delivered inside the chamber and set to the working pressure of 1.2 Bar. Thus (“flashing by nitrogen” first) an oxygen and water vapor concentrations inside of the sparking chamber medium were reduced to less than 10-2 and 10-5 ppmv respectively. As a next step the cosmic rays telescope was tested. The rate of the cosmic muons was at 4-5 events per minute level as expected. Then this trigger signal from the telescope was transformed to the HV pulse using special circuit and then it was delivered to the electrodes. Thus the sparking was fully synchronized with cosmic muons detected by telescope and the track of the cosmic rays was illuminated. Very first test is shown on this link: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?v=404034436386125.
The fully functional spark chamber (Figure 8) was first presented to the public at the Researchers Day on 27th September 2013 in the hearth of Zagreb at the Cvijetni Trg between 8 and 9 PM (http://noc-istrazivaca.hr/paznja-paznja-kozmicke-zrake-nas-bombardiraju/). Its work was also successfully demonstrated to the participants of the combined Final Steering Committee-PMB meeting and Workshop for potential collaborators held in December 2013. It is ready for use and available for future demonstrations of cosmic ray bombardments to general public. At the end we would like to emphasize the work performed by Antonija Utrobičić who was the main responsible person for the spark chamber design.
2.3 Workshop for potential international scientific collaborators
It was decided to combine this workshop with the third and final Project Management Board – Project Steering Committee (PMB-PSC) meeting, planned for December 2013. The first project kick-off meeting was held 6th November 2010. The second mid-term meeting was held jointly with the Diamond Detectors Workshop at the Plitvice Lakes between 7th and 10th May 2012. Following the success of the previous joint meeting/workshop held at Plitvice Lakes, we decided to join this PMB-PSC meeting with the Workshop for potential international scientific collaborators, planned within the Work-package on dissemination of project results. Such joint meeting would create the opportunity to exchange the knowledge and experiences between the local participants, PCS members and other researchers invited to the workshop, for the increased benefit for all and increasing the project impact. Finally it was agreed to organize this joint meeting/workshop in Zagreb between 9th and 10th December 2013.
The purpose of the combined meeting/workshop was to:
- present the project achievements to all the meeting participants, including the PSC members and other participants,
- review the project achievements and discuss the obtained results and impact,
- exchange the knowledge between local and international participants on their research activities through presentations and discussions,
- discuss about possibilities for future collaborations.
The workshop was attended by 38 participants, including local participants, PSC members, international experts invited and supported by the project and the others that attended the workshop on their own expense. The workshop was very successful. We exchanged the knowledge with international participants and identified research topics of joint interest and discussed about possibilities for future collaborations. At the time of the preparation of this report we already started to prepare several concrete proposals for international cooperation which we hope to result with joint project proposals for Horison2020 and other research schemes. Total cost of the workshop was 11390.77 €.
2.4 Workshop for RBI researchers
Two days workshop was organized at the RBI called ‘’Information days for capital RBI equipment: The RBI Tandem Accelerator Center’’ (in Croatian ‘’Informativni dani kapitalne opreme – Sustav tandem akceleratora’’) in collaboration with the RBI committee for capital equipment. During the first day presentations in Croatian language were organized for local RBI participants at the RBI seminar room 1 according to the schedule given in the deliverable D6.4. The second day was reserved for practical on-the-job training of selected participants at the premises of the Tandem Accelerator Facility. Total cost of the workshop was 348.67 €.
2.5 Presentations for RBI researchers
The Division of Material Physics (DMP) at RBI hosts researchers studying various aspects of materials with a focus on the synthesis and characterization of new and modified nanostructured semiconductors, dielectrics and metallic materials, as well as the investigation of their molecular properties. Some of the equipment acquired and installed at RBI thanks to the PD project could be of use for researchers. This is the case for instance for the two laboratory setups installed to test the properties and response of silicon pixel detectors with laser beams and in well controlled humidity and temperature conditions. Several laboratory tours with detailed explanations of the equipment and its possibilities were given to colleagues from DPM. Several of them expressed interest to collaborate in the future using the opportunities opened by the new equipment.
2.6 Workshop for Croatian scientific community
We used the opportunity to become co-organizers of the 8th Scientific Meeting of the Croatian Physical Society and present Particle Detectors project to the whole Croatian community of physicists and physics students at once. The meeting was organized in Primošten (Croatia) between 6th and 8th October 2013.
Rudjer Bošković Institute and the Particle Detectors project were official co-organizers (http://www.hfd.hr/zs/zs2013/). Total number of participants was 183, including 7 Croatian physicists working abroad, 33 physics students from all Croatian universities and 143 physicists working in Croatia at various institutions.
Head of the RBI Division of Experimental Physics and member of the Particle Detectors Project Management Board, Milko Jakšić, gave the first (invited) talk with the title ‘’Accelerators, ion beams and diamond detectors – between materials physics and high energy physics’’, promoting the achievements of the Particle Detectors projects and its impact to the research of the RBI Division of Experimental Physics. Darko Mekterović, expert employed under the Particle Detectors project in his talk entitled ‘’FP7 project Particle Detectors’’ gave an overview of the activities performed under the project and the results achieved. Several other RBI members of the Particle Detectors project presented to the public their activities either orally or by posters, including the importance and impact of the Particle Detectors project on their respective work. Those include Zoran Basrak (member of the Particle Detectors Project Management Board), Iva Božičević Mihalić, Nikola Poljak and Jelena Luetić together with their co-authors (RBI staff involved in the PD project). Total cost of the workshop was 2029.74 €.
2.7 Workshop for industry
Here we used the opportunity to held this workshop jointly with the Croatian Employers’ Association - HUP (http://www.hup.hr/en/) and the Croatian Fusion Research Unit (CRU). Croatian Fusion Research Unit was formed in 2013 as association of Croatian laboratories involved in or with the potential and interest to be involved in the fusion research supported by Euroatom and EU Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. HUP and RBI Division of Experimental Physics have important role in CRU. The Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions which runs the Tandem Accelerator Facility upgraded by the Particle Detectors Project is active in the activities supported by CRU – which is one of the impacts of the Particle Detector project. The CRU coordinator is Tonči Tadić from the Division, Stjepko Fazinic (PD coordinator) is liaison officer for the Croatian scientific community, and Maja Pokrovac from HUP is liaison officer for the Croatian industry.
The Project Management Board of the Particle Detectors project, the Croatian Fusion Research Unit and Croatian Employers’ Association agreed to organize joint workshop for industry representatives at the HUP premises in Zagreb on 29th January 2014. The workshop was successfully organized. It was attended by 26 participants, including 11 representatives of major Croatian Universities and public Research Institutes (Universities of Zagreb and Split, Rudjer Boskovic and Institute of Physics from Zagreb) and 15 representatives of the local industry.
After the opening speech made by Bernard Jakelić (Deputy Director General of HUP), Tome Antičić (RBI General Director and previous PD coordinator) presented RBI opportunities for collaborations with industry. Then Stjepko Fazinić (PD coordinator) presented Particle Detectors project, emphasizing possibilities for future collaborations with industrial partners. He also pointed out possibilities for joint collaboration in interdisciplinary fields related to energy production, detector testing and development, and other multi and inter-disciplinary applications in which accelerated ion beams could be applied. Tonči Tadić then focused his presentation on the possibilities of Croatian industry for participation in ITER construction and collaborations with the Croatian scientific community. Milan Kordić as local industry representative presented his related views and experiences. In discussions after presentations we established initial contacts with several possible future industrial partners. Total cost of the workshop was 580.02 €.
2.8 Participation at conferences
Detailed report was submitted as deliverable D6.5. Here summary is presented in relation to the conferences held during the second reporting period.
- T. Antičić and V. Brigljević presented PD project in front of the Croatian particle physics community and members of the international High Energy Physics community gathered at the “LHC Days in Split” conference held in Split (Croatia) between 4th and 9th October 2010 to review the latest result from the field with a strong focus on the first results from the Large Hadron Collider experiments. V. Brigljević also presented his activities performed under the Particle Detectors project to the participants of the conference ‘LHC Days in Split’ held between 1st and 6th October 2012.
- Z. Basrak made presentation at the 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at San Antonio, Texas, USA (27th May to 1th June 2012). The aim of my attendance was twofold: (i) to deliver a talk entitled “Constancy of Energy Partition in Central Heavy-Ion Reactions at Intermediate Energies”, (ii) to broadcast pertinent information on upgraded possibilities for detector research and testing at RBI which is offered by implementation of the “Particle detector” project. At that aim many contacts have been established with a number of colleagues from USA and Europe to Japan.
- L. Grassi presented her activities performed under the Particle Detectors project to the participants of the: (i) conference ‘RUTHERFORD CENTENNIAL CONFERENCE ON NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2011’; (ii) Conference on Nuclear Structure and Dynamics held in Opatija (Croatia) between 8th to 14th July 2012; (iii) International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications 2012 (ICNMTA-2012) held in Lisbon (Portugal) between 22nd and 29th July 2012.
- M. Jakšić presented his activities performed under the Particle Detectors project to the participants of the: (i) International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications 2012 (ICNMTA-2012) held in Lisbon (Portugal) between 22nd and 29th July 2012; and (ii) International Conference 'SPIE Defence, Security and Sensing'.
- V. Grilj presented his activities performed under the Particle Detectors project to the participants of the: (i) International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications 2012 (ICNMTA-2012) held in Lisbon (Portugal) between 22nd to 29th July 2012; and (ii) 21st International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA 2013) that was organized between 23rd and 29th of June 2013 in Seattle (USA).
- S. Fazinić presented his activities performed under the Particle Detectors project to the participants of the 22nd International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry (CAARI2012) held in Fort Worth (Texas, USA) between 4th and 11th August 2012.
- N. Soić presented his activities performed under the Particle Detectors project to the participants of the 2nd Workshop on the Physics at the Tandem - ALTO facility, held in Orsay (France) between 13th and 16th May 2013.
- S. Szilner presented her activities performed under the Particle Detectors project to the participants of the International Nuclear Physics Conference (INPC 2013) held in Firenze (Italy) between 2nd and 7th July 2013.
2.9 Printing of Particle Detectors brochure in English language.
The brochure was designed by the local staff and printed for the cost of 588.04 €. It was first distributed in December 2013 to the participants of the joint Final PSC-PMB meeting and Dissemination Workshop.
Particle Detectors staff and researchers from partner institutions made presentations and participated at regular seminars on nuclear and particle physics and associated interdisciplinary research held at the seminar room of the Tandem Accelerator Facility for RBI and University of Zagreb scientific staff.
- D. Mekterović: "Udarni presjek za produkciju fotona i mlaza na 7 TeV-a", 16.05. 2013.
- J. Pietraszko: "In-medium hadron properties measured with HADES", 15.03.2013.
- V. Brigljević: "Status of the Search for the Higgs Boson at the LHC", 19.04.2012.
- D. Ackermann: '' Paving the way to the island of stability super-heavy element research at GSI and beyond'', 13.09.2013.
- Giovanni Pollarolo: ''A semi-classical model for multi-nucleon transfer and fusion reactions in heavy ion collisions '' June 2013.
2.11 Outreach activities to schools
RBI regularly welcomes young people from elementary and high schools in Croatia interested in scientific and technological research, and DEP scientists have usually played a very active role in such outreach activities. Lately, the detector testing equipment and laboratories installed thanks to the PD project have regularly been an object of such visits, showing the real possibilities for work on instrumentation opened up at RBI. The spark chamber demonstrating the presence of cosmic rays built as a part of the PD project has usually attracted a lot of interest among visitors. This was the case for instance during the organization of the “International Masterclasses”. In the context of this program, each year about 10.000 high school students in 40 countries come to one of about 200 nearby universities or research centres for one day in order to unravel the mysteries of particle physics. Lectures from active scientists give insight in topics and methods of basic research at the fundaments of matter and forces, enabling the students to perform measurements on real data from particle physics experiments themselves. Researchers at DEP have started the first Croatian participation in this program in 2012 and are repeating it since then every year, with nearly 100 high school students coming to RBI each year. The laboratory visit, in which the spark chamber and other equipment acquired through the PD project play a prominent role, are an important part of this event.
2.12 Presentation of the project to wider audience through media and seminars for general public
- On 08th March 2010 top selling daily newspaper Vecernji list presented a half page editorial describing two FP7 projects that were just approved to Croatian participants, one of them being “Particle Detectors”
- On 11th November 2010 WBC-INCO.NET Newsletter in "News from Croatia“ – mentioned „Particle Detectors“
- On 10th November 2011 leading Croatian daily for the business and academic community ‘business.hr’ described Particle Detectors project in a very positive light on a two page editorial.
- Lider – Leading Croatian weekly magazine for the business and academic community on 29th April 2011 presented on two pages in its technology section very positive spread about the project, with translated title “Particle Detectors against the brain drain”.
- FP7 Training for industry members, hotel Sheraton Zagreb. On all of them the “Particle Detectors” project was given by Tome Anticic in one-hour presentations:
- 17th December 2010
- 01st March 2011
- 11th March 2011
- 12th April 2011
- 21st April 2011
- 03rd May 2011
- 14th June 2011
- 27th October 2011
In Belgrade, Serbia on 17th November 2011 - Part of FP7 seminar to energy sector community of Eastern Europe, - one hour presentation of PD.
In four interviews published in daily newspaper Vecernji list (24th March 2013), weekly magazine Lider (13th December 2012 and 31st August 2012) and in monthly magazine Lider-Tehnopolis (1st July 2012), Tome Antičić presented various aspects of RBI involvement in R&D, including presentation of the Particle Detectors project
Article was published in daily newspaper Jutarnji list (7th February 2013) about foreign researchers working at Croatian R&D organizations, including the experts employed in the Particle Detectors project
Article was published in daily newspaper Poslovni dnevnik (2nd July 2013) about EU funded projects at Croatian R&D organizations
Two articles were published in daily newspaper Poslovni dnevnik (7th February 2014) and in monthly magazine Mreza (1st March 2014) about possibilities of Croatian industry and R&D organizations to participate in ITER construction, in relation to joint workshop held between the Croatian Fusion Research Unit, Particle Detectors project and Croatian Employers Union
An interview by Tome Anticic was presented at the Croatian TV channel HRT1 on 13th April 2013 in the TV show ‘Znanstvene vijesti’ (translated to ‘Science news’)
Three interviews given by Vuko Brigljevic were presented at the Croatian TV channel HRT1 within the TV show ‘Znanstvene vijesti’ (translated to ‘Science news’) on 16th March 2013, within evening News (Dnevnik 3) on 28th March 2013, and within TV show ‘Trenutak spoznaje’ on 10th January 2013.
List of Websites:
Particle Detectors project web site is: http://lnr.irb.hr/pd
Rudjer Boskovic Institute web site is: www.irb.hr
RBI Division of Experimental Physics web site is: http://www.irb.hr/eng/Research/Divisions-and-Centers/Division-of-Experimental-Physics
Tome Anticic, RBI Director (Tome.Anticic@irb.hr)
Milko Jaksic, Head of the Division of Experimental Physics (Milko.Jaksic@irb.hr)
Stjepko.Fazinic project coordinator (Stjepko.Fazinic@irb.hr)
Grant agreement ID: 256783
1 August 2010
31 January 2014
€ 1 479 332
€ 1 319 612,70
RUDER BOSKOVIC INSTITUTE
Grant agreement ID: 256783
1 August 2010
31 January 2014
€ 1 479 332
€ 1 319 612,70
RUDER BOSKOVIC INSTITUTE
Deliverables not available
Grant agreement ID: 256783
1 August 2010
31 January 2014
€ 1 479 332
€ 1 319 612,70
RUDER BOSKOVIC INSTITUTE
Grant agreement ID: 256783
1 August 2010
31 January 2014
€ 1 479 332
€ 1 319 612,70
RUDER BOSKOVIC INSTITUTE
Grant agreement ID: 256783
1 August 2010
31 January 2014
€ 1 479 332
€ 1 319 612,70
RUDER BOSKOVIC INSTITUTE