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  • Investigation on the continuous casting of small-size billets and on the rolling, drawing and machining properties of Bi-bearing free-machining steels produced in mini mills


The present research work is aiming to examine the possibilities of producing free machining steels by using equipment and practices typical to mini mills and thus include the most commonly used of these steels in the mini mill production programme. Industrial scale test heats have been carried out by replacing Pb with the non toxic Bi in order to overcome environmental problems difficult to solve in mini mills. Experimental work and appropriate procedures established for the production of Bi bearing free machining steels are described in detail. Problems encountered and solutions given during all production steps, i.e. steelmaking in the electrical arc furnace and the ladle furnace, continuous casting, hot rolling, cold drawing and straightening, are thoroughly discussed.

Additional information

Authors: KORAKAS N, Sidenor SA, Athens (GR)
Bibliographic Reference: EUR 16848 EN (1997) 59pp., FS, ECU 10.00
Availability: Available from the (2)
ISBN: ISBN 92-828-1397-5
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