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Even more stringent requirements for steel cleanness are being placed on steel makers, which results in heightened demands on the examination techniques employed. Since clean steels by nature have a low concentration of inclusions, commonly used inclusion assessment methods fail, or become too slow, in the daily use. This multi-partner project has aimed at developing rapid assessment methods for inclusions in clean steels. The rapidity has been achieved by a number of different approaches. Approaches like optimisation of sample location in slabs, speed optimisation of automatic image analysis, inclusion concentration by floatation of inclusions to the surface area of samples, assessment of inclusion sizes by the use of laser technique and finally development of sampler and sampling technique for sampling early in the steel making process have been developed in parallel. The methods developed have been tested and compared in several round robin exercises during the project. The search for semimacro or macro inclusions in clean steel is preferably done after having the inclusions concentrated or with a volume examination technique. Finally, there is no universal method for inclusion assessment. The technique of choice strongly depends on considerations such as at what stage of the steel making process the inclusion assessment is performed, what sizes of inclusion one is seeking and if their morphology and chemical composition is important. Therefore, all of the various methods, the methods developed within the project as well as standard examination methods, have their role to play.

Additional information

Authors: DAMEN W, Hoogovens Groep, IJmuiden (NL);HAEUSSLER E, Thyssen Krupp Stahl, Duisburg (DE);QUESTED P, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (UK);BUTLER J, British Steel, Swinden Technology Centre, Moorgate, Rotherham (UK);HANSEN T, MEFOS, Luleå (SE)
Bibliographic Reference: EUR 19892 EN (2001), pp. 363. Euro: 54.50
Availability: Available from EUR-OP sales agent URL:
ISBN: ISBN 92-894-1542-8
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