Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

  • European Commission
  • Publications
  • Investigations of chlorine and alkali behaviour in the blast furnace and optimisation of blast furnace slag with respect to alkali retention capacity


The main objective of this project is to study behaviours of such elements: alkali, chlorine and sulphur in their gaseous, liquid and solid state within the blast furnace and their influences on burden materials, coke, slag and consequently the overall blast furnace performance.

Various methods and facilities were applied such as: thermodynamic studies, standard laboratory tests, laboratory tests with sophisticated apparatus, investigations by using an experimental blast furnace and finally industrial trials at the operating blast furnaces. The investigations and the trials were carried out by four industrial partners: DH, TKS, VASL; Rautaruukki Steel; two universities: University of Oulu, Freiberg University; and two research institutes: IRSID and FEhS.

For the first time, this project has clarified the behaviour and effects of chlorine in context with alkali within the blast furnace. Under the BF conditions, chlorine has strong affinity with alkali to build alkali chlorides (KCI). Alkali chlorides boost the sinter disintegration and increase fines at high temperatures. Alkali chlorides can circulate and accumulate within the BF shaft due to their low condensation temperature. Such circulation induces irregularity of BF operation.

Furthermore, the influential parameters on the alkali retention capacity of slag together with the desulphurisation capability have been systematically studied from the solid burden materials to the final slag. Different possible measures for optimising the alkali removal and desulphurisation of the final slag have been clearly demonstrated by the laboratory and industrial investigations. Which measures can be realised depends on the prevailing conditions and the strategy of individual plants.

Additional information

Authors: BURGLER T, Voest-Alpine Stahl Linz, Linz (AT);LECTARD E, IRSID, Maiziere-les-Metz (FR);LIN R, AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Dillingen/Saar (DE);JAHNSEN U, TKS, Duisburg (DE);WIDNER, Voest-Alpîne Stahl Linz, Linz (AT);BÜRGLER T, Voest-Alpîne Stahl Linz, Linz (AT);LECTARD É, IRSID, Maizière-lès-Metz (FR);SERT D, IRSID, Maizière-lès-Metz (FR);MANNILA P, Rautaruukki Oyj, Raahe (FI);HEINÄNEN K, Rautaruukki Oyj, Raahe (FI);TANSKANEN P, University of Oulu (FI);HUTTENEN S, University of Oulu (FI);KALLIO S, University of Oulu (FI);HÄRKKI J, University of Oulu (FI);SAVOV L, TU Bergakademie Freiberg (DE);IWANOV O, TU Bergakademie Freiberg (DE);JANKE D, TU Bergakademie Freiberg (DE);DRISSEN P, FEhS, Duisburg (DE)
Bibliographic Reference: EUR 20586 EN (2003), 338pp. Euro: 51.00
Availability: EUR-OP reference: KI-NA-20586-EN-S Available from EUR-OP sales agents URL:
ISBN: ISBN: 92-894-4766-4
Follow us on: RSS Facebook Twitter YouTube Managed by the EU Publications Office Top