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This work generated the data needed in the more advanced use of stainless steels in bus constructions. On the basis of the current state of the art made for project planning, the following main tasks were chosen for this study:
task 1: materials;
task 2: joining;
task 3: forming;
task 4: mechanical testing;
task 5: corrosion testing;
task 6: design concept;
task 7: design guideline.

In order to use stainless steels effectively, knowledge of their corrosion and mechanical properties, their economic influence, changes in design and production technology are needed. Stainless steels offer many alternatives (here EN 1.4301, EN 1.4003, 304sp and 16-7Mn) for corrosion- and mechanical-safe structures. These steels in the form of annealed/cold strengthened sheets, tubes and formed tubes are investigated here. Joining (MIG/MAG, powder-plasma-arc, laser, spot welding and weldbonding) and forming (hydroforming and bending) methods and their effects on joint and structural safety (strength, crash, fatigue and corrosion) are studied. New structural concepts, using hydroformed tubular nodes and bended tubes in the body frame are also studied. A case structure (in the bus factory) is made using austentic stainless steel EN 1.4301. The effect of stainless steel material, production methods and design on the costs and environmental impact is verified by LCC- and LCA.

The objectives were reached in a versatile cooperation with bus manufacturers (Carrus/Volvo, Kabus), research institutes (CSM, TNO, VTT), technical universities (HUT and University of Oulu), steel manufacturers (AvestaPolarit, Acerinox and Ugine Savoye Impy) and tube manufacturers (Stala, Jaro, Matthey). The results can be used in the design of more safe, economical and environment-friendly structures

Additional information

Authors: SANTACREU P-O, Ugine Savoie Imphy, Isbergues (FR);PICCOZZI V, Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), Roma (IT);GALES A, TNO, Eindhoven (NL);KYRÖLÄINEN A, AvestaPolarit Stainless Oy, Tornio (FI);SÁNCHEZ R, Acerinox, Los Barrios (ES)
Bibliographic Reference: EUR 20884 EN (2003), 457pp. Euro: 55
Availability: EUR-OP reference: KI-NA-20884-EN-S Available from EUR-OP sales agents URL:
ISBN: ISBN: 92-894-6635 9
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