Forschungs- & Entwicklungsinformationsdienst der Gemeinschaft - CORDIS

FP7

COEXIST Berichtzusammenfassung

Project ID: 245178
Gefördert unter: FP7-KBBE
Land: Norway

Final Report Summary - COEXIST (Interaction in coastal waters: A roadmap to sustainable integration of aquaculture and fisheries)


Executive Summary:

COEXIST was a multidisciplinary project which evaluated competing activities and interactions in European coastal areas. The goal was to provide a roadmap for better integration, sustainability and synergies across the diverse activities now taking place in the European coastal zone.

The project supported the spatial planning of coastal areas and the new European Maritime Policy. Case studies, supported by national projects, were used to provide data for further analysis through the integrated work packages. This included detailed comparative analyses and integrated models for the regional seas, as well as a synthesis on the European scale. COEXIST addressed interactions on a biological and biogeochemical level, as well as a socio-economic level, and the governance and legal aspects. In COEXIST six case study areas were analysed:

Case Study 1 – Hardangerfjord
Case Study 2 – Atlantic Sea Coast (Ireland and France)
Case Study 3 – Algarve Coast
Case Study 4 – Adriatic Sea
Case Study 5 – North Sea Coast (Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands)
Case Study 6 – Baltic Sea

The ultimate outcomes of the project were the:

• Characterisation of relevant European coastal marine ecosystems, their current utilisation and spatial management
• Evaluation of spatial management tools for combining coastal fisheries, aquaculture and other uses, both now and in the future

All the results mentioned above have been summarised in the Guidance on a Better Integration of Aquaculture, Fisheries, and other Activities in the Coastal Zone: from tools to practical examples, an attractive, easy to read and easily accessible booklet, which is one of the key outputs of the project.

Project Context and Objectives:

COEXIST was a multidisciplinary project which evaluated competing activities and interactions in European coastal areas. The goal was to provide a roadmap for better integration, sustainability and synergies across the diverse activities now taking place in the European coastal zone.

The project supported the spatial planning of coastal areas and the new European Maritime Policy. Case studies, supported by national projects, were used to provide data for further analysis through the integrated work packages. This included detailed comparative analyses and integrated models for the regional seas, as well as a synthesis on the European scale. COEXIST addressed interactions on a biological and biogeochemical level, as well as a socio-economic level, and the governance and legal aspects. In COEXIST six case study areas were analysed:

Case Study 1 – Hardangerfjord
Case Study 2 – Atlantic Sea Coast (Ireland and France)
Case Study 3 – Algarve Coast
Case Study 4 – Adriatic Sea
Case Study 5 – North Sea Coast (Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands)
Case Study 6 – Baltic Sea

The ultimate outcomes of the project were the:

• Characterisation of relevant European coastal marine ecosystems, their current utilisation and spatial management, through the:

- Description of major present and possible future interactions between aquaculture and fisheries, using dynamic models to account for spatial use, environment and ecology, and socio-economics.
- Identification of aquaculture- and fisheries-specific objectives (e.g. socioeconomic, biophysical and governance), within the framework of sustainable development of coastal zones, and assessment of the degree to which these objectives were being achieved.
- Review of the current governance regimes applicable to management of fisheries and aquaculture, inventory of the individual spatial management tools currently utilised, and evaluation of their efficiency and effectiveness with respect to the goals identified in the Blue Book for a European Maritime Policy.

• Evaluation of spatial management tools for combining coastal fisheries, aquaculture and other uses, both now and in the future:

- Evaluation of benefits and possible bottlenecks for concomitant development of fisheries, aquaculture and other major activities in the coastal zone.
- Modelling of future scenarios for fisheries, aquaculture and other activities per case study and discussion of options of spatial management with stakeholders.
- Extrapolation of generic conclusions which are valid beyond the maritime regions of the case studies.
- Identification of best practices for the integration of fisheries, aquaculture, and other uses in coastal zone management and, where needed, proposal for improvement of suitable spatial management tools.

In the following lines, the work carried out to achieve the above objectives is described:

1. The baseline for COEXIST had been set, providing a reference description of fisheries, aquaculture and other activities in the coastal zones both at the generic level and at an ecosystem-specific level (D1.4, M9). The baseline consisted of:

• Definitions and characterisation of concepts (D1.4 [M9])
• Description of the major present and future types of interactions between aquaculture and fisheries, or between any of these two elements and other sectors/resource users, accounting for spatial use, environment and ecology, and socio-economics (D1.2 and D1.3 [M8]).
• An inventory of possible combinations of aquaculture and/or fisheries and other activities (existing, and future scenarios) including a management tool glossary (D1.4 [M9]).

2. A baseline analysis of legal, policy and institutional arrangements was conducted, covering current approaches to interactions between aquaculture, fisheries and other sectors (D2.3 [M18]).

3. A stakeholder analysis and mapping exercise was conducted to identify those with an important role and to clarify the societal motivations, incentives and values which govern their responses (D2.1 [M9], D7.2 [M18], D7.3 [M18], D7.4 [M18], D7.5 [M18]).

4. The potential use of GIS and other scenario-based simulation and visualisation tools were detailed (D2.2 [M18]).

5. A selection of relevant models was developed, addressing both the natural and human environment and using quantitative indicators such as production, incidence of disease, income and profit, and environmental quality. These tools included screening models that may be used for higher-level system assessment (D3.1 [M18]).

6. A framework for multi-objective quantitative and qualitative evaluation of marine spatial management in coastal zones was developed (D4.1 [M12]).

7. Stakeholders and end-users of the COEXIST project were identified and classified by sector and type (D2.1 [M9]).

8. Public- and sector-specific awareness of the project, its objectives and activities, was raised and effective dissemination tools and services for the project were set up for transfer of knowledge during the project. Also, a communication and dissemination plan was developed to ensure effective communication with, and feedback from, end-users and other stakeholders (D6.1 [M3], D6.2 [M3], D6.3 [M9], D6.4, D6.5, D6.6, D6.7, D6.8, D6.9, D6.11 [M18] and D8.4 [M12]).

9. The COEXIST metadatabase was established (D7.6 [M18]).

10. Suitability maps for European coastal areas (D1.1 [M36]): a GIS-based tool which can be used for spatial planning of aquaculture. In fact, with some adjustments, it can be used for scenario planning in calculating possible effects of climate change, e.g. by adjusting parameters such as temperature and salinity.

11. Comprehensive review of the law, policy and institutional frameworks to produce a significant reference volume which considers the interaction between aquaculture and other users and the role that these policy and regulatory measures play with respect to potential conflict (D2.5 [M39]). The final output is of interest to a diverse range of stakeholders from the different sectors operating in the coastal areas (aquaculture, fisheries, renewable energy, tourism, etc.).

12. Parameterised and validated models for planning and decision-making in aquaculture, fisheries and other activities in the coastal zones (D3.2 [M32], D3.3 [M34], D3.4 [M33]), D3.5 [M36], D3.6 [M34], D3.7 [M36], D3.8 [M36], D3.9 [M36]).

13. Application of the COEXIST framework for multi-objective quantitative and qualitative evaluation of marine spatial management in coastal zones in each case study area (D4.2 [M36]).

14. Submission of a peer-reviewed article including the results of the application of the COEXIST framework to each case study area (D4.3 [M39]).

15. Organisation of the facilitated and interactive Joint ICES/COEXIST workshop: “Best Practice Guidelines for spatial planning to integrate fisheries, aquaculture and other uses in the coastal zone” (D7.7 [M30], D7.8 [M30], D7.9 [M30]). Over 30 stakeholders from different sectors (aquaculture, fisheries, coastal zone management, tourism, energy, etc.) along with 20 members from the COEXIST project partnership and ICES representatives met in Bergen on 19th September 2012 to provide input and feedback on the COEXIST results obtained up to that point. These inputs have been used to adapt the results to their needs as coastal zone users and managers (D5.2 [M39]).

16. Synthesis including (D5.1 [M39]):

a. The key project results and outcomes regarding the characterisation of the six representative case studies
b. A cross-case study comparison of the observed conflicts and synergies of major human activities
c. The evaluation of management effectiveness and spatial management scenarios
d. Recommendations for future concomitant development of fisheries, aquaculture and other activities

17. Organisation of six case study workshops (D6.6, D6.9 [M39]). The aim of these workshops was to transfer the final COEXIST outputs to the relevant local stakeholders in each case study area. By organising local workshops the transfer of results was customised to the needs of each local case study area stakeholder. The workshops were carried out in the local language, which facilitated the communication of the information.

18. Effectively managing the Knowledge Outputs (KOs) from the COEXIST project. From M18, COEXIST research outputs were collected, analysed and validated in order to prepare the key results for transfer and exploitation to end-users who could make best use of these results. (D6.9 [M39]).

19. Plan of Action for the Knowledge Transfer (D6.9 [M39]): Identification of the most suitable methods for transferring knowledge to ensure that any knowledge transfer resulted in uptake and exploitation. Other aspects were identification of end-users and application and details on the Knowledge Output itself.

All the results mentioned above have been summarised in the Guidance on a Better Integration of Aquaculture, Fisheries, and other Activities in the Coastal Zone: from tools to practical examples, an attractive, easy to read and easily accessible booklet, which is one of the key outputs of the project.

Project Results:

To achieve the main goal of the project and its expected impact the work was divided into six RTD Work Packages (WP1, WP2, WP3, WP4, WP5 and WP7) and one dissemination and knowledge transfer Work Package (WP6). In order to ensure that the project was completing the expected outcomes, a specific work package was dedicated to project management (WP8).

The lines below describe the main achievements in each RTD WP, specifying the main results of the project:

Work Package 1 - Baseline: Identification of Interactions, Conflicts and Management Tools in Coastal Waters (Marine Ecosystem Approach)

The followings tasks were carried out in WP1, the accomplishment of these tasks led to the achievement of the expected results.

Task 1.1: Definitions and characterisation of marine ecosystems

Task 1.1a Maps: IMARES Wageningen UR completed the suitability maps, showing suitable locations in Europe’s coastal waters for different aquaculture species. Physical characteristics such as salinity and temperature were taken into account. This task included the generation of suitability maps for aquaculture in the Greater North Sea, the Mediterranean, the Baltic Sea, the Celtic Bay of Biscay, and the Azores for the species: Coregonus lavaretus; Crassostrea angulate and Crassostrea gigas; Dicentrarchus labrax; Diplodus sargus; Gadus morhua; Mytilus edulis; Mytilus galloprovincialis; Oncorhynchus mykiss; Ostrea edulis; Pecten maximus; Venerupis decussate; Salmo salar; Solea senegalensis; Sparus aurata; and Venerupis corrugata. The results of this task were achieved in M36 and are included in D1.1.

Task 1.1b List of definitions: This list was ready in M9 and is included in D1.4. The selection of the top 15 definitions was carried out by choosing those concepts that were used in multiple WPs. During the COEXIST project meeting held in Hamburg (Germany) in November 2011, a dedicated session on the list of definitions was carried out. In this session the attendees were separated into small groups and tasked with establishing definitions for use in the project. In a plenary session these definitions were agreed upon. The list of definitions was published on the write-board at the project path so that more feedback could be provided. The deadline to give further feedback was 15th December 2010. After this deadline, the list was considered approved by all partners and submitted as final. These definitions have been used throughout the entire project.

Task 1.1c Characterisation of ecosystems: To carry out the characterisation of ecosystems, a work plan was set up for validation by case study and work package leaders. The work plan contained four steps:

1. Ecosystem characterisation at regional scale
2. Ecosystem characterisation at case study level
3. Linking pressures of activities on ecosystems through tables
4. Description of how activities pressurise ecosystems

The case study leaders provided the information required to complete the four steps. This resulted in a comprehensive overview of all activities, ecosystem components and pressures in all case study areas. This report was completed in M10 and is included in D1.5.

Task 1.2 Matrices of interaction:

A work plan to perform the work needed to complete the matrices of interaction (aquaculture vs. fisheries and aquaculture and fisheries vs. other activities) was sent for validation to the case study leaders in early December 2010. After processing the feedback, the final version was sent to the case study leaders by mid-December 2010. The work plan contained two steps:

1. Identification of activities, conflicts and synergies
2. Construction of matrices

The case study leaders provided the input required to complete the two steps. These matrices were delivered in M9 and are included in D1.2 (Figure 1 - in attached pdf) and D1.3 (Figure 2 - in attached pdf). They provided a unique overview of all activities and interactions among activities in Europe’s coastal zones. They also provided a first inventory of the conflicts and synergies in the case study areas.

Task 1.3 Future combinations: During Task 1.2 the case study leaders provided input on the synergies between activities in their case study areas. This information was utilised as a basis for the report of future combinations. This report provided an important overview of those activities that can be combined in coastal areas. It clearly showed that activities with a fixed nature, e.g. oil rigs, wind parks, fixed gears, and aquaculture can be combined. The product was delivered in M9 (D1.4). These results were presented as a poster at the ICES annual conference held in Gdansk, Poland in September 2011 and the Aquaculture Europe conference held in Rhodes, Greece in October 2011.

Task 1.4 Glossary of spatial management measures: In Annex I to the grant agreement this task was referred to as Glossary of spatial management tools. The concept of “tool” has multiple meanings throughout the COEXIST project; therefore it was replaced by “measure”. Also, for this task a work plan was made, validated and implemented by the case study and work package leaders. They were asked to provide a table including spatial plans, policy measures and implementation measures for each case study area. This product was delivered in M9 and is included in D1.4. However, during the review process several issues were raised. It appeared that the tables contained measures that did not have a spatial or temporal character. Also, some measures covered regions outside the case study areas. In addition it was not always clear on which laws or regulations the measures were based. To solve these issues a checklist was made with the aim of filtering all identified measures. The result was a glossary feeding directly into WP4, aiming to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of spatial measures.

Task 1.5 Future scenarios: The methodology for this task was based on the effects of market prices and spatial claims, resulting in four scenarios. As agreed during the COEXIST meeting in Hamburg in November 2010, the time span of these scenarios is 2020. The case study leaders provided information on the implications of each of the scenarios for fisheries, aquaculture and other activities. Also, the implications of the four scenarios on possible conflicts and synergies were provided. The report clearly shows under which scenarios fisheries, aquaculture and other activities thrive best. It also showed that high spatial claims for Marine Protected Areas in combination with claims from increasing economic activity will fuel conflicts in the future. The report was delivered in M9 and is included in D1.4.

The objective of this WP was fully achieved. The tasks described above set the baseline for COEXIST and provided a reference description of fisheries, aquaculture and other activities in the coastal zone both at the generic level and at an ecosystem specific level. The baseline was used by Work Packages 2, 3, 4 and 5.

Work Package 2 - Legal, Institutional and Policy Frameworks

The following tasks were carried out in WP2. The accomplishment of these tasks delivered the expected results.

Task 2.1 Review of the legal frameworks: At any legal scales within which overall governance is implemented. This is particularly important given the requirement on Member States to be prudent in their use of natural resources and also the requirement to protect the marine environment.

The review of the legal frameworks was twofold: stakeholders were asked about the legal framework in the governance questionnaire for Task 2.5 on Institutional Analysis. This provided information from the people involved in actual activities in the case study area, particularly how they regard the various legal instruments that operate, and issues surrounding their existence, implementation and enforcement. The second part of the legal review was much more document-based, looking at the specific laws and policies used for management but with a view to addressing the issues raised previously by stakeholders through suggesting amendments or changes to how such a law/policy is implemented. Task 2.1 was included in its entirety in Deliverable 2.5.

Task 2.2 Review of the current policy framework – account for new/recent integrated EU policy documents, e.g. Communication on Marine Spatial Planning or Blue Book. Provide a review of global and European approaches to fisheries/aquaculture interactions integrating research from sectoral aquaculture and fisheries areas.

The review of policy frameworks followed the same format as the legal review and was twofold: stakeholders were asked about the policy framework in the governance questionnaire for Task 2.5 on Institutional Analysis. This provided information from the people involved in actual activities in the case study area, particularly how they regard the various policies: how these operate, how these may influence future industry development, as well as identifying any issues surrounding their existence, implementation and enforcement. The second part of the policy review was document-based, looking at the specific policies concerned, but with a view to addressing the issues raised previously by stakeholders through suggesting amendments or changes to how such policy is implemented. This was different according to each case study location but it was through this type of review work that recommendations were made. Task 2.2 was included in its entirety in Deliverable 2.5.

Task 2.3 Review of current management regimes and plans – in particular the relationship between the Common Fisheries Policy and the Habitats Directive.

This followed on from the above two tasks but built on the institutional analysis work and specifically how management regimes work or don’t work in specific case study areas in relation to specific activities. It is clear from the governance questionnaire responses, for example, that despite a common legal framework, many different regional and local policies exist, which have consequences for management and the industries operating. Task 2.3 formed a distinct element of Deliverable 2.5.

Task 2.4 Conduct a stakeholder analysis and mapping exercise to identify and clarify (a) who the relevant stakeholders are; (b) the interrelationships between stakeholders and between stakeholders and the issues; and (c) the mechanisms, mediums and levels of stakeholder engagement in the decision-making process.

A stakeholder analysis and mapping exercise was conducted (M18, D2.1) after two draft versions (M9 and M11) which were necessary due to the late arrival of a number of stakeholder questionnaires. The report fed into a number of the governance tasks in WP2. The report clarified who the relevant stakeholders were, the interrelationships between stakeholders and between stakeholders and the issues, and the mechanisms, mediums and levels of stakeholder engagement in the decision-making processes.

Task 2.5 Conduct an institutional analysis to identify and clarify what government departments and other regulatory agencies are involved in the management of fishery and aquaculture activities with a view to identifying potential areas of overlap, gaps or opportunities to streamline management requirements, e.g. development consents, licensing, leasing, etc. This task complemented the above action by identifying if, where and when the public is involved in the decision-making process with a view to identifying keys stages in the decision-making process where public participation is necessary, thereby contributing to the implementation of the Århus Convention on access to environmental information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters.

A governance questionnaire was distributed to all case study leaders in March 2011. Where case study leaders were not able to answer the specific governance and institutional questions, additional input was garnered from others in the case study area (governmental officials, academic researchers, etc.). The governance questionnaires analysed the governance structures, management regimes and policy frameworks in each case study area and identified if and how the public and other interested parties were involved in the decision-making process. A draft of this work (D2.3, M18) was presented to project partners at the progress meeting held in Lisbon in June 2011. During that time additional information was contributed by the partners so that a second draft could be produced. The insights given through this work were taken forward and expanded upon in Deliverable 2.5.

Task 2.6 Review of best governance practice using Marine Spatial Planning in other areas.

The Review of best governance practice began in M16 and continued until M36. The results of this task fed into D2.5

Task 2.7 Review the potential use, and best practice, of GIS and other scenario-based simulation and visualisation software tools incorporating stakeholders’ preferences and management objectives.

Draft review of the potential use, and best practice, of GIS and other scenario-based simulation and visualisation software tools was completed in September 2011 (D2.2). This document outlined the tools that are used/could be used in scenario-based simulation and visualisation of issues (such as climate change/spatial conflicts) that were identified in the stakeholder report, thus the report incorporated stakeholders’ preferences and management objectives.

Task 2.8 Develop indicators of governance best practice relating to interactions between aquaculture, fisheries and other sectors (Olsen 2003, Bastien-Daigle et al 2008). Indicators may be adapted from the comprehensive list of governance performance indicators developed for Marine Protected Areas by Pomeroy et al, 2002.

In this task an inventory of indicators of governance best practice based on available literature was presented. This inventory was used in WP4 to select a set of indicators to evaluate the spatial planning process. Secondly, appropriate governance indicators were selected and described in more detail for the preliminary identification and preparation phase of the marine management and governance process.

The overall goal of this WP was to review and document the current governance regimes applicable to the management of fisheries and aquaculture. By completing the tasks above the WP achieved its general objective by providing a comprehensive review of law, policy and institutional frameworks in the EU that influence interactions between aquaculture, fisheries and other maritime sectors, identifying barriers to, and opportunities for, more efficient management.

Work Package 3 - Integration of Models and Processes

The tasks itemised below were executed in Work Package 3 (WP3), and led to a number of results that are fully described in the WP3 deliverables, and briefly summarised below.

Task 3.1 Data and information: An extensive review of different types of models of interest to COEXIST was prepared by Partner 15 (LEI) with some contributions by Partner 6 (IMAR) and other partners. Five criteria formed the basis for the selection of models (Table 1 - in attahced pdf) to be applied on a broad scale across various case studies.

• Which models the consortium has access to;
• Which models are currently in use in various case studies;
• Which models are potentially usable in various case studies given constraints re: time and money;
• Where is there (in a case study) interest and willingness to use particular models that we can share within COEXIST, and deploy on a broader European scale;
• Which models are already tools or will become tools soon: i.e. the data requirements are clear and achievable, and the model is (relatively) easy to use.

Some of these models were in use in specific case studies, such as the LCA model applied in the Baltic, and although they will not be tested at other sites, their application in a particular case study is certainly of value. In particular, these examples may be useful to the European Commission, Member States, and Conventions such as OSPAR, HELCOM, Barcelona, and Black Sea, in the implementation of instruments such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

Other models, such as EcoWin2000, were in use in one case study only; because the cost of testing at other sites is beyond the scope of COEXIST. However, similar models are being applied in other case studies (in this case Hardangerfjord), and one of the aims of WP3 was to identify the class of model that may be of value in particular circumstances.

Screening models, such as FARM for local-scale aquaculture, and ASSETS for system-scale eutrophication assessment, are freely available to the partnership, and have lower data requirements.

Task 3.2 Natural and human components of fisheries: Models for fisheries include the spatial approach shown in Figure 3 (in attached pdf) for the southern North Sea. Other models, dealing with the relative value of fisheries and other uses, include the FISHRENT model developed by LEI in the Netherlands.

A model was also developed in D3.1 for the brown shrimp Crangon crangon, an important species in the southern North Sea. In contrast to most exploited fish, ageing of brown shrimp is not possible; therefore a sound understanding of the species life cycle is crucial. The model is set up as “individual-based” model (IBM), following individuals (or cohorts with uniform properties) from the egg stage until death, whether natural or through fishing. Originally the parameterisation was carried out with literature data, but subsequently a number of laboratory experiments and field samples were set up in order to refine and improve the biological settings. The estimation of the growth characteristics was crucial, as it linked size to age and hence is basic for mortality estimates. Experiments on growth turned out to be highly sensitive to the methods employed.

The latest version of the simulation model was programmed in Delphi (object-oriented Pascal) and simulated a large number of daily cohorts over a period of four years. Variability in growth rates can occur between different daily cohorts. Both genders were modelled separately. The model was not spatially resolved. However, it has already been used to investigate a number of management-related scenarios, e.g. the effects of a summer fishing ban, increase in winter fishing, and reduction of the minimum size for commercial use and the effect of fishing of undersized shrimps.

The impact of future spatial management on the coastal fisheries, i.e. individual fisherman (vessels) and fishermen communities was presented in D3.2. To achieve this task in a first step the information on fishing effort per individual trip and landings of individual trips were combined to allocate landings and with that revenues to a spatial grid of about 3 x 1.5 nautical miles (0.05 degree c-squares). In a second step, this earlier effort/landings/revenues of each individual fisherman in an area which is planned to be closed for a specific fisheries in future was compared to the overall effort/landings/revenues of this fisherman at a certain time (reference time span). This calculated individual “stress level” (percentage of effort/landings/revenues of total effort/landings/revenues which will be “lost” due to a closure of an area for specific fisheries) could then, in a third step, be aggregated at different levels: producer organisation, harbour communities, segments or fisheries with a specific gear used or countries. This aggregation is often obligatory not only to simplify the results but also to take account of confidentiality issues of individual data.

In summary, the stress level calculated in D3.2 might be used as one of many indicators to estimate the outcome of future management based on the closure of fishing grounds, but cannot foresee profit losses of individual fishermen or fishing communities.

Task 3.3 Natural and human components of aquaculture

Aquaculture modelling focused on two groups: bivalve shellfish and finfish. For both shellfish and finfish, a range of models exist describing individual growth. Whereas the shellfish models place a greater emphasis on food drivers, given that this is organically extractive aquaculture, finfish models often consider that the food is supplied in excess (which has traditionally been the case, with well-known environmental consequences) and the emphasis was placed on metabolic processes and physical factors such as water temperature.

Individual models for fish growth such as the well known net energy balance model developed by Stigebrandt (1999) for growth of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Norwegian fjords was implemented in COEXIST, with a view to application at relevant case study sites.

For shellfish, models were developed using the AquaShell approach for Pacific oyster (Silva et al., 2011) and blue mussel, and were finalised for the clam Ruditapes decussatus. The Mediterranean mussel has been modelled after Brigolin et al (2009).

A finfish model was developed for gilthead seabream and incorporated into FARM. This model was used together with the shellfish model to simulate the production, growth, profit and environmental impact of Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture (IMTA) in CS3 in D3.4 and D3.7 and also published in Ferreira et al. 2012. (Ferreira, J.G., C. Saurel, J.M. Ferreira, 2012a. Cultivation of gilthead bream in monoculture and integrated multi-trophic aquaculture. Analysis of production and environmental effects by means of the FARM model. Aquaculture, 358–359, p. 23–34)

These individual models were distributed as part of the FARM model (Ferreira et al., 2007; Ferreira et al., 2009), which simulates populations of species cultivated in open water. The model can be applied for site selection and culture optimisation, taking into account both biomass production and environmental effects.

In the specific example of Case Study 3 (Algarve), these models formed part of an ecosystem-scale modelling framework (e.g. Nunes et al., 2011), providing an assessment of spatial variability in carrying capacity, and its relationship to a large (14 km2) offshore aquaculture area. These results are presented in D3.5.

Task 3.4 Assessment of the effect of fisheries and aquaculture at different scales (local, ecosystem) on the environment

The downloadable FARM model (D3.4) version was designed for the COEXIST partners such as farmers or for licensing purposes, in order to determine the appropriate finfish or shellfish densities for optimal carrying capacity (the highest sustainable yield of market-sized animals within a given time period). This version of FARM targets four cultivated species of fish and shellfish: gilthead bream (Sparus aurata); Manila clam (Tapes philippinarum), Good Clam (Ruditapes decussatus) and Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The model was validated in Case Study 3 of the COEXIST project: the Algarve coast. The blue mussel model integrated in FARM was applied in Case Study 5 (North Sea, with emphasis on Danish coast) and the Mediterranean mussel model integrated in FARM was applied in Case Study 4 (Adriatic Coast) as presented in D3.7.

The effect of fisheries was evaluated by applying the FISHRENT model to Case Study 5 (Coastal North Sea). FISHRENT was adapted from a non-spatial version into a spatial version. Species and fisheries of focus are the mixed flatfish fisheries targeting plaice and sole and the fisheries for brown shrimp. FISHRENT is a multi-fleet, multispecies, bio-economic simulation and optimisation model to evaluate management strategies (D3.3).

The application of both models allows the assessment of the effect of fisheries and aquaculture at different scales (local, ecosystem) on the environment.

Task 3.5 Natural and human components of other activities

The GeoReferenced Interactions Database (GRID) Model (D3.9) was developed by the CNR-ISMAR within this task. GRID is a web-based flexible database connected with a number of tools to analyse marine activities and interactions (conflicts and synergies) in the European coastal zones.

GRID was developed as a decision support and management tool for stakeholders involved or affected by marine spatial planning such as fisheries and aquaculture managers, Coastal zone managers, policy makers, fisheries and aquaculture associations, tourism and wind energy industry. GRID can provide information on the activities developed in a specific area to support decision-making.

Task 3.6 Adaptation, improvement and integration of models

This task was executed through the application of combined local-scale and system-scale models to COEXIST Case Study 3, Algarve coast, to illustrate how local-scale and system-scale models can be combined to study aquaculture production, environmental effects (positive and negative), and disease spread, and its impact on the environment (D3.7). D3.7 included the application of the FARM model to two other case studies: CS4 Adriatic Coast and CS5 North Sea.

D3.6 is a report on pathogens’ impact on production on farmed and wild fish, with salmon lice in the Case Study 1 Hardangerfjord system as model (farm fishery interactions). Spatial interactions with Epidemic/population dynamics/dispersal modelling of sea lice in the Hardangerfjord in Norway was presented, including the integration of various models to simulate the salmon lice abundance and movements: compartment-based models, network based models and hydrodynamic models are used for disease transfer, while salmon lice production and distribution of salmon lice require other numerical models. Outputs of such simulations can be added to GIS-based aquaculture site-selection software such as AkvaVis. AkvaVis is a dynamic GIS tool for siting fish farms, and it is currently applied in the Hardangerfjord as a marine spatial planning tool for decision maker and farmers.

Task 3.7 Development of screening models

FISHNETS is a tool designed for management of aquaculture, and impact on wild fisheries and conservation. FISHNETS is a screening model (D3.8), aimed at farmers and managers, and uses four screens to evaluate:

• Biosecurity aspects of siting a new farm
• Vulnerability of a particular species to disease
• Optimisation of culture practice

The information entered on the four screens of the model (Location, Species, Environment and Governance) is used to provide a risk assessment for aquaculture and wild species interaction. The model has been developed but needs to be validated.

The completion of the tasks above helped to successfully achieve the goals of WP3. This WP aimed to apply and integrate different types of dynamic models to examine and assess interactions between fisheries, aquaculture, and other uses of the coastal zone. These models addressed both the natural and human environment and used quantitative indicators such as production, incidence of disease, income and profit, and environmental quality. These tools included screening models that may be used for higher-level system assessment. The WP produced a selection of relevant models that described and quantified major processes in fisheries aquaculture and other marine resource utilisation and modelled interactions by combining existing models for the processes in individual components, based on spatial and temporal overlap of activities, and related interference potential.

Work Package 4 - Evaluation of Spatial Management Tools

The followings tasks were carried out in WP4, the accomplishment of these tasks led to the achievement of the expected results.

Task 4.1: To develop a framework for evaluation of marine spatial management in coastal zones

The framework for evaluation of marine spatial management in coastal zones was developed. The development of the framework was part of an iterative process. LEI produced a first concept based on Annex I to the grant agreement. This concept was subsequently distributed to the partners for review and comments. This happened three times and each time more detail regarding steps and methodology was added to the framework. Eventually this resulted in the final report (D4.1). This iterative process proved to be necessary for a number of reasons, namely:

• To reach agreement on a common interpretation of the approach that was outlined in Annex I to the grant agreement to carry out work package 4.
• To improve the understanding of how work packages (especially 1 to 5) fitted together and fed into one another and thus the overall operation of the COEXIST project.
• To reach a common understanding of tasks 4.2 to 4.7 in work package 4 that needed to be carried out by the individual partners throughout the course of the COEXIST project.

The steps that were outlined in the framework covered tasks 4.2 to 4.7. During the development of the framework it proved necessary to rearrange these tasks and activities. In order to maintain a clear link to Annex I to the grant agreement, each step refers to the original task in Annex I to the grant agreement.

The implementation of the COEXIST framework led to the achievement of the following tasks:

Task 4.2 Identify and weight spatial management objectives
Task 4.3 To develop performance indicators
Task 4.4 To measure cumulative impacts
Task 4.5 To determine how individual spatial management tools influence key activities
Task 4.6 To evaluate effectiveness and efficiency of spatial management tools
Task 4.7 To evaluate adaptations to spatial management tools and propose adaptations

These tasks, 4.2-4.7, were related to the steps of the framework that was applied in the six case study areas. The COEXIST framework was conducted in the Hardangerfjord (CS1), the Atlantic coast of Ireland (CS2-Irealnd), the Algarve coast (CS3), the Adriatic Sea coast (CS4), the coastal North Sea (CS5) and the Baltic Sea (CS6). The case studies reports are provided in separate documents under D4.2 (M36).

In addition to this, the COEXIST framework was explained, together with some case study results, in an article submitted to an international journal (D4.3).

Work package 4 assessed the existing spatial management tools for each COEXIST case study and proposed improvements to those tools when required, thus achieving the main goal of this WP.

Work Package 5 - Best Practice: Synthesis of COEXIST Work Packages 1 to 4 and Case Studies

The following tasks were carried out in WP5. The accomplishment of these tasks delivered the expected results:

Task 5.1: A compilation of case study results in order to identify benefits and bottlenecks for concomitant development: The results of the case studies from work packages 1–4 were analysed to derive region-specific conclusions about options for mutual benefits to be reached through effective management of activities requiring space in the coastal zone. Bottlenecks were described and investigated with respect to possible solutions.

Task 5.2: Evaluation of conclusions from the individual case study analyses and modelled management scenarios for generic applicability: A broad comparative analysis led to an overall evaluation of current applications of spatial management tools and of possible mutual opportunities with combined uses. The results were assessed for possible extrapolation to derive generic recommendations for spatial management in European seas. The gaps in the transferability of overall conclusions from the individual case study areas to other European areas were also identified.

Task 5.3: The compilation of a working document based on tasks 5.1 and 5.2, and through consultation with stakeholders (including representatives from fishing and aquaculture industries, national management agencies, the EU Commission, research institutes and other relevant institutions) was carried out. The result of this work is available in D5.1.

Task 5.4: A synthesis workshop: The synthesis workshop was organised in Bergen, Norway on the 19th September 2012 and jointly held with the ICES Annual Science conference. It was an interactive and facilitated event where stakeholders from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, representing a variety of sectors, including aquaculture, fisheries, coastal zone management, tourism and energy had the opportunity to give as much input as possible to the COEXIST results obtained so far. These inputs were used to adapt the COEXIST results to their needs as coastal zone users and managers.

The successful achievement of these tasks led to the attainment of the WP5 main objective. This was to synthesise at a higher level in order to look beyond the scale of individual case studies for common patterns of interactions between activities and general rules to derive best management practices and guidelines that can be applied in coastal zone management in Europe (D5.2).

Work Package 7 - Knowledge Management: Supporting Systems, Processes and Methodologies

The followings tasks were carried out in WP7, the accomplishment of these tasks led to the achievement of the expected results.

Task 7.1 To assist in the development of the methodology and processes for communicating with stakeholders in the case studies across the WPs (i.e. stakeholder consultations)

During the first period of the project lifecycle a stakeholder consultation process was carried out to complete the D2.1 of WP2. In order to achieve this deliverable, the leader of WP2 developed and distributed the survey among the Case Study leaders.

In Annex I to the Grant Agreement the consultation process included several workshops with the case study stakeholders in order to gather the information required. This methodology was changed for interviews, as this methodology was more suitable for the kind of information required than the organisation of a workshop. The Case Study leaders interviewed the relevant stakeholders in their case study area to complete the questionnaire needed by WP2.

The deliverables related to this task are D7.2, D7.3, D7.4 and D7.5; they have been all compiled in one deliverable called Stakeholder surveying in the Case Study Areas.

During the second period of the project lifecycle a stakeholder consultation process was carried out to complete D4.2 of WP4. In order to achieve this deliverable, the leader of WP4 developed a survey that was translated into the case study countries’ languages. The survey was designed so that the results among the case studies were comparable. In order to encourage the stakeholders’ participation the survey was carried out on-line using e-surveypro. This software also facilitated the task of analysing the results as it provided excel files that could easily be imported into the software used to treat the data. The deliverables related with this task are D4.21- D4.26 (Report per each case study area).

Task 7.2 To centralise the data management in the project to ensure consistency and compatibility between WPs, a meta database of results across WPs allowing easier analysis and prevent any potential overlap

Task 7.2 centralised the data management in the project to ensure consistency and compatibility between WPs, and developed a metadatabase of results across WPs allowing easier analysis and preventing any potential overlap. The main objective was to develop a suitable database system that allows partners to query the data and extract the information required to carry out their analyses.

Initially, AQUATT held a subcontract (15,000 EUR) to build this metadatabase. However, after several discussions and analysis of the requirements of the metadatabase, UCC (partner 3) built this application as they already had the correct software to execute this task. This software was used in other European projects and the compatibility of these metadatabases in different projects enabled the sharing of information, thereby increasing the impact of the project results.

The COEXIST GeoNetwork open source facility is a standard-based spatial information management system, tailored to the COEXIST project. It was designed to enhance spatial and non-spatial information exchange, and promote sharing between the partner organisations. Using the capacities and the power of the Internet, the service enables access to geo-referenced databases, cartographic products and documents of the COEXIST project, through descriptive metadata.

The system has a number of features to facilitate this, by allowing users to:

- Instant search on local and distributed geospatial catalogues.
- Upload and download data, documents, PDFs and other content.
- Use an interactive Web map viewer that combines Web Map Services from distributed servers around the world.
- Generate online map layouts, and export these in PDF format.
- Edit metadata online with a powerful template system.
- Schedule metadata harvesting and synchronisation between distributed catalogues.
- The system is accessible via the address: http://COEXIST.ucc.ie/geonetwork/

The deliverable related to this task is Deliverable 7.6.

Task 7.3 To assist in the organisation of any external events in the project (Stakeholders’ Workshops, Synthesis Workshop)

As stated in Task 7.1, no stakeholders’ workshops were carried out during the first period of execution of the COEXIST project.

During the COEXIST project several workshops were organised to engage and update the stakeholders. These events’ design provided the target end-users of the project results with significant opportunities to provide inputs and feedback on the draft Knowledge Outputs during project implementation. This feedback was taken on board by the COEXIST partnership when developing the final outputs. The table below (Table 3 - in attached pdf) includes the workshops organised by COEXIST, more information about these activities can be found in D6.6 (M18, M24, M30 and M39), D6.9 (M39) and D7.7, D7.8 and D7.9.

Task 7.4 Scientific Project Management

Each COEXIST Case Study had management resources allocated within this WP. One of the Case Studies (CS5 North Sea Coast) had specific management needs, as it was allocated across three partners in three different Member States (Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands). One of these (Algarve) was managed by IPMA (former IPIMAR), but the other Portuguese partner IMAR also took part in the case study. A similar situation applied to the Baltic Case Study, which was led by FGFRI, but with SYKE also taking part in it. The remaining Case Studies were led and run by single partners.

The project was scientifically monitored as a whole (i.e. across Work Packages and Case Studies) by this WP. There was, in accordance with the Annex I to the grant agreement (Figure 1, page 11), a complex system of data flow from Case Studies to Work Packages, and between Work Packages. The deliverables related to this task are D7.10 and 7.11 that are submitted together with the final report.

By achieving these tasks WP7 attained its main objective of supporting all other work packages as required.

Potential Impact:

The impact expected from the COEXIST project was:

1. To contribute to (i) the maintenance and development of coastal fisheries and aquaculture, and (ii) the sustainable development at local and regional levels and to the growth of the aquaculture and fisheries sectors

The COEXIST project contributed to the maintenance and development of coastal fisheries and aquaculture and to sustainable development at local and regional levels. COEXIST also contributed to the growth of the aquaculture and fisheries sectors by providing different reports to help achieve a better spatial management of the coastal zones. The main results contributing to these were:

• Description of the major present and future types of interactions between aquaculture and fisheries, or between any of these two elements and other sectors/resource users, accounting for spatial use, environment and ecology, and socio-economics (D1.2 and D1.3 [M8]).
• An inventory of possible combinations of aquaculture and/or fisheries and other activities (existing, and future scenarios) including a management tool glossary (D1.4 [M9]).
• Parameterised and validated models for planning and decision making in aquaculture, fisheries and other activities in the coastal zones (D3.2 [M32], D3.3 [M34], D3.4 [M33]), D3.5 [M36], D3.6 [M34], D3.7 [M36], D3.8 [M36], D3.9 [M36]).
• Suitability maps for European coastal areas (D1.1 [M36]): a GIS based tool which can be used for spatial planning of aquaculture. In fact, with some adjustments, it can be used for scenario planning in calculating possible effects of climate change, e.g. by adjusting parameters such as temperature and salinity.
• Summary of the COEXIST project results in the Guidance on a Better Integration of Aquaculture, Fisheries, and other Activities in the Coastal Zone: from tools to practical examples.

2. To contribute to the knowledge-based economy

The project has contributed towards a knowledge-based economy through transnational cooperation between relevant disciplines. This included the involvement of scientists, those involved in the fisheries and aquaculture industry and other stakeholders, while simultaneously addressing the social, environmental and economic challenges relevant to those maritime sectors.

3. To provide a framework to assist with the resolution of the existing and future conflicts related to interactions between aquaculture, fisheries and other sectors

The COEXIST project developed a framework for multi-objective quantitative and qualitative evaluation of marine spatial management in coastal zones (D4.1). This framework was applied in the six COEXIST case study areas (D4.2) providing coastal zone managers with a tool to evaluate the marine spatial management in their case study area and several examples on how to apply the framework as well as details of its limitations. In addition, a peer-review article was submitted including the framework and examples of its application so that it could serve to carry out further research on the area.

4. To contribute to the formulation, implementation and assessment of the current EU policies and legislation

The COEXIST project contributed to the formulation, implementation and assessment of the current EU policies and legislation by providing different reports to help achieve better knowledge of the legal, institutional and policy frameworks in Europe. The main results contributing to these were:

• A baseline analysis of legal, policy and institutional arrangements covering current approaches to interactions between aquaculture, fisheries and other sectors (D2.3 [M18]).
• A stakeholder analysis and mapping exercise to identify those with an important role and to clarify the societal motivations, incentives and values which govern their responses (D2.1 [M9], D7.2 [M18], D7.3 [M18], D7.4 [M18], D7.5 [M18]).
• A report of the potential use of GIS and other scenario-based simulation and visualisation tools (D2.2 [M18]).
• Comprehensive review of the law, policy and institutional frameworks to produce a considerable reference volume which considers the interaction between aquaculture and other users and the role that these measures play with respect to potential conflict (D2.5 [M39]). The final output is of interest to a diverse range of stakeholders including those involved in aquaculture production, management, promotion and licensing but for other maritime sectors (e.g. renewable energy, fisheries) that operate, or plan to operate, in locations that support aquaculture.

5. To improve the management tools based on the ecosystem approach

The COEXIST project contributed to the improvement of the management tools based on the ecosystem approach by providing different reports to help achieve a better spatial management of the coastal zones. The main results contributing to these were:

• Synthesis including (D5.1 [M39]): The key projects results and outcomes regarding the characterisation of the six representative case studies; a cross-case study comparison of the observed conflicts and synergies of major human activities; the evaluation of management effectiveness and spatial management scenarios; recommendations for future concomitant development of fisheries, aquaculture and other activities.
• Parameterised and validated models for planning and decision-making in aquaculture, fisheries and other activities in the coastal zones (D3.2 [M32], D3.3 [M34], D3.4 [M33]), D3.5 [M36], D3.6 [M34], D3.7 [M36], D3.8 [M36], D3.9 [M36]).
• Suitability maps for European coastal areas (D1.1 [M36]): a GIS-based tool which can be used for spatial planning of aquaculture. In fact, with some adjustments, it can be used for scenario planning in calculating possible effects of climate change, e.g. by adjusting parameters such as temperature and salinity.
• Synthesis of the COEXIST project results including (D5.1 [M39]): the key project results and outcomes regarding the characterisation of the six representative case studies; a cross-case study comparison of the observed conflicts and synergies of major human activities; the evaluation of management effectiveness and spatial management scenarios; recommendations for future concomitant development of fisheries, aquaculture and other activities.
• Summary of the COEXIST project results in the Guidance on a Better Integration of Aquaculture, Fisheries, and other Activities in the Coastal Zone: from tools to practical examples.

6. To improve the relationship and communication among stakeholders, scientist and civil society

The dissemination and knowledge transfer activities carried out within the project were designed to facilitate and improve the relationship and communication among stakeholders, scientists and civil society. Through the press releases, the project website and the promotional gimmick created for COEXIST, the project reached the wider public. The COEXIST events promoted the interaction and communication among the stakeholders of the European coastal areas.

7. To support new knowledge transfer across Europe

The strategy that supported the transfer of the new knowledge generated within COEXIST across Europe has been deemed to be successful ensuring that the project has actively engaged directly with more than 3,000 stakeholders across Europe and disseminated the project results to over 10,000 people worldwide. The project design has also given the target end-users of the project results significant opportunities to provide inputs and feedback on the draft Knowledge Outputs during project implementation. This feedback has been taken on board by the COEXIST partnership when developing the final outputs, including the Guidance on a Better Integration of Aquaculture, Fisheries, and other Activities in the Coastal Zone: from tools to practical examples, a key output of the project.

The COEXIST partners have been fully committed to the project and its results and are planning to continue promoting the project after the funded duration, specifically by the organisation of the ICES special session titled: Marine spatial planning: The multidisciplinary approach”. This session will be carried out the 23rd-25th September 2013 in Reykjavik, Iceland during the ICES Annual Science Conference 2013. The event will be attended by target end-users of the project (senior policy makers) and printed guidance will be also distributed there.

A detailed strategy for communication and involvement of stakeholders and for dissemination of results to general and targeted audiences was integrated into the project. WP6 - Dissemination, Communication and Knowledge Transfer was in charge of the development of this strategy, the following activities were carried out to ensure that the dissemination and knowledge transfer strategy of the project was cost-effective:

General Dissemination Activities: these have been developed during the 39 month duration of the project to raise the awareness of the target end-users about the project objectives and expected results and attract stakeholders to key events. It included the creation of general and targeted dissemination material (such as the COEXIST logo and brochure, COEXIST markers, COEXIST Case Study fact-cards, etc.), the publication of press releases on the main achievements of the COEXIST project in different e-newsletters, the presentation of the COEXIST preliminary and final results in relevant events (scientific conferences, producers’ events, national consultation processes for aquaculture planning, aquaculture events) and peer-review publications (see section 4.2 below). All these activities are included in WP6 deliverables.

Knowledge Transfer Activities: these were carried out during the second part of the project so that there was interaction and a two-way exchange of knowledge with stakeholders ensuring the final results met their needs (see section 4.2 below). All these activities are included in D6.9 (M12 and M39) deliverables.

- Transfer activities - Science to Science:

• Presentation of the project results at Scientific Conferences (oral presentations and posters) (Link): This activity was carried out by all partners. The main conferences to attend were identified and the most appropriate results were then presented. In most cases the presentations were based on the applications of specific tools to the suitable COEXIST case study area.
• Peer-review publications (Link): The partners have published three peer-review publications so far. One further article has been submitted to a journal and we are waiting for final acceptance.
• International ICES/COEXIST workshop (Link): This activity was foreseen in Annex I of the COEXIST Grant Agreement. The workshop was a Multi-Stakeholder interactive event where all the relevant end-users of the COEXIST project were invited to provide feedback on the preliminary results so that the final products were adapted to their needs.
• Case Study Workshops (Link): The workshops were designed to the specific audience and adapted to the Case Study area.
• “Guidance on a better Integration of Aquaculture, Fisheries, and other Activities in the Coastal Zone: From tools to practical examples” (Link): Easy to read, attractive short book that allows the reader to go to the issue that they need to resolve proposing a series of examples (application on different European coastal areas) on how the tools developed within the project can help.
• Special session on COEXIST at the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Annual Science Conference 2013 (Link): A COEXIST special session titled: “Marine spatial planning: The multidisciplinary approach” will be run on the 23rd-25th September 2013 in Reykjavik, Iceland during the ICES Annual Science Conference 2013. In this session the COEXIST project results will be presented by the project partners. Several copies of the Guidance on a better Integration of Aquaculture, Fisheries, and other Activities in the Coastal Zone: From tools to practical examples will also be distributed at this event.
• COEXIST Website (Link): This promotional product contains all the project results. It has been redesigned to make the results more accessible to the user. All the contact details of the partners are available on the website and linked to the specific results they have developed so they can be contacted to get further information.

- Transfer activities - Science to Policy:

• International ICES/COEXIST workshop: This activity was foreseen in Annex I of the COEXIST Grant Agreement. The workshop was a Multi-Stakeholder interactive event where all the relevant end-users were invited to provide feedback on the preliminary results so that the final products were adapted to their needs.
• Case Study Workshops: The workshops were designed to the specific audience and adapted to the Case Study area.
• Guidance on a better Integration of Aquaculture, Fisheries, and other Activities in the Coastal Zone: From tools to practical examples: Easy to read, attractive short book that allows the reader to go to the issue that they need to resolve proposing a series of examples (application on different European coastal areas) on how the tools developed within the project can help.
• Special session on COEXIST at the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Annual Science Conference 2013: A COEXIST special session titled: “Marine spatial planning: The multidisciplinary approach” will be carried out the 23-25 September 2013 in Reykjavik, Iceland during the ICES Annual Science Conference 2013. In this session the COEXIST project results will be presented by the project partners. Several copies of the Guidance on a better Integration of Aquaculture, Fisheries, and other Activities in the Coastal Zone: From tools to practical examples will also be distributed at this event.
• COEXIST Case Studies Fact-cards (Link): This promotional product was developed to raise awareness of the COEXIST project results coming out. It was specifically designed to encourage the policy makers to regularly check the COEXIST project website and be aware of the new tools and reports developed within the project.
• Review of law, policy and institutional frameworks in the EU that influence interactions between aquaculture, fisheries and other maritime sectors, identifying barriers to and opportunities for more efficient management: This document was specifically laid-out and designed for any stakeholders engaging with policy makers, and is based on D2.5 (Link). It provides a comprehensive review of law, policy and institutional frameworks in the EU that influence interactions between aquaculture, fisheries and other maritime sectors. It contains the key legal instruments and the extent to which interactions are covered by them, the relevant EU policies that are currently being implemented or are proposed for adoption in the near future, the institutional structures for fisheries, aquaculture and other sectors, and finally it draws some tentative conclusions on the barriers and opportunities to more efficient management.
• Presentation of the project results at stakeholders events: This activity was carried out at a national level by all partners. They attended specific event related to coastal zone management to present the tools and results of the COEXIST project.
• COEXIST Website: This promotional product contains all the project results. It has been redesigned to make the results more accessible to the user. All the contact details of the partners are available on the website and linked to the specific results they have developed so they can be contacted to get further information.

- Transfer activities - Science to Industry:

• Presentation of the project results at producer- and aquaculture-specific events: This activity has been carried out by all partners. The main producer and aquaculture events in Europe and worldwide were attended. In several of these events a stand was set up and the producers interested in the project were able to speak to a partner who described the project results and how they could be implemented. At these events the COEXIST promotional products (such as the COEXIST markers and brochure) were also distributed to draw the attention of the participants to the COEXIST project website.
• International ICES/COEXIST workshop: This activity was foreseen in Annex I of the COEXIST Grant Agreement. The workshop was a Multi-Stakeholder interactive event where all the relevant end-users of the COEXIST project were invited to provide feedback on the preliminary results so that the final products were adapted to their needs.
• Case Study Workshops: The workshops were designed to the specific audience and adapted to the Case Study area.
• Guidance on a better Integration of Aquaculture, Fisheries, and other Activities in the Coastal Zone: From tools to practical examples: Easy to read, attractive short book that allows the reader to go to the issue that they need to resolve proposing a series of examples (application on different European coastal areas) on how the tools developed within the project can help.
• COEXIST Website: This promotional product contains all the project results. It has been redesigned to make the results more accessible to the user. All the contact details of the partners are available on the website and linked to the specific results they have developed so they can be contacted to get further information.

- Transfer activities - Science to Other:

• Guidance on a better Integration of Aquaculture, Fisheries, and other Activities in the Coastal Zone: From tools to practical examples: Easy to read, attractive short book that allows the reader to go to the issue that they need to resolve proposing a series of examples (application on different European coastal areas) on how the tools developed within the project can help.
• COEXIST Markers: This promotional product was designed to raise awareness of the COEXIST project to wider society by directing the public to the COEXIST website. This product was distributed in the events attended by the COEXIST partners.
• COEXIST Website: This promotional product contains all the project results. It has been redesigned to make the results more accessible to the user. All the contact details of the partners are available on the website and linked to the specific results they have developed so they can be contacted to get further information.
• Lectures: The COEXIST partners have given different lectures in Masters programmes at different universities.

Based on the actions described above, more detailed information is presented in D6.9.

List of Websites:

A dedicated COEXIST website - D6.2 was set up (Figure 5). The website played multiple roles: a communication resource to promote the project, its objectives and partnership; a communication resource to update interested parties on progress, results and outcomes and a repository for key deliverables; a location for customised tools and services to support the operation of the project; and a venue for debate and dialogue during and beyond the project on fisheries management issues. The public project website is visually attractive and informative and designed following the EU Project Websites – Best Practice Guidelines (March 2010). It also includes the web-based collaborative workspace (Basecamp) to facilitate continuous project partner communication. Thus, it includes general information about the project and the partners, the project work progress and the project deliverables.

At a later stage in the project, the COEXIST project website (D6.2) was migrated to a new Content Management System (CMS) known as Joomla, which provides more functionality and a more user-friendly interface for administrators. The website domain is still the same www.coexistproject.eu. In addition the front end of the site design has been upgraded to make it more attractive, easier to navigate and with a faster search function. The organisation of the new website is as follows:

Home: It contains a brief description of the project and the latest news; it directs the user to the other sections of the website.

- Project. It contains the relevant information about the project:

• At a glance
• Overview
• Methodology WP & CS
• Management Structure
• Consortium

- Results. It contains all the project results that are publicly available:

• Work Packages and Deliverables
• Case Studies
• COEXIST Guidance Document
• Tools
• Publications

- Events. It contains all the events carried out within the project:

• Calendar
• Workshops

* Joint ICES/COEXIST Workshop
* Case Study Workshops

- Media Centre.

• Promotional Material
• Press Releases
• Posters and Presentations

Table 4 (attachedin pdf) contains the contact details of the COEXIST project partnership.


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