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  • Periodic Report Summary 2 - TRUST (High resolution monitoring, real time visualization and reliable modeling of highly controlled, intermediate and up-scalable size pilot injection tests of underground storage of CO2)

Periodic Report Summary 2 - TRUST (High resolution monitoring, real time visualization and reliable modeling of highly controlled, intermediate and up-scalable size pilot injection tests of underground storage of CO2)

Project Context and Objectives:
Prepare the Heletz site for the CO2 injection experiments. Gather data and information on the Miranga (Brazil) CO2 injection site. Exchange of information and contribution to the design of injection experiments in the Swedish/Baltic sites. Design and implement safe, cost effective and multi-purpose monitoring technologies enabling to verify the storage stability and to produce reliable and high resolution datasets for model validation. Design and implement a new integrated active and passive seismic monitoring system. Develop the (Kinetic Interface Sensitive) KIS tracers.

Determine of permeability changes as a proxy for the extent of the CO2 plume. Integrate surface and downhole measurements and monitoring results in an internet platform with online and real-time visualization tools. Model and modeling approach development, evaluation and validation against comprehensive sets of field data; Development of approaches for long-term and large scale (industrial) predictions of CO2 injection and storage. Design simulations of injection experiments, including testing of different injection scenarios. Interpretation and model matching of the injection experiments; Development of the operational models for the sites for large-scale and long-time predictions; Providing a field data case for model cross-validation and providing a first approach for such cross-validation.

Define optimal injection strategies and modes of injection in order to maximize the trapping while minimizing the reservoir pressure build-up and minimizing the energy usage and other major costs of the operation. Test some of the key injection strategies at Heletz. Extend the analyses, by means of modeling, to other conditions and site characteristics. Analyze results and suggest recommendations on best practices for injection, from the outlet of the supply line to the reservoir and the related pressure management.

Develop a new technology for remediation based on reactive fluid injection (self-carbonation solute). Determine the optimal fluid formulations and uses according to the local hydro-thermo-chemical properties of the reservoir. Conduct a controlled experiment of CO2 leakage in a poorly plugged or unplugged well at CNRS.

Develop and implement a site specific risk management procedure Heletz site, aimed at achieving a comprehensive risk assessment process, controlling and monitoring, communication of information, handling and minimizing residual risks (especially downhole, near the wellbore, and within the caprock) and detecting and handling possible failures of the seal or near-well completion. Use the risk management findings as input for further applications such as the development of guidelines, protocols for site licensing and certification, liability issues.

Ensure broad visibility of TRUST, by establishing a solid platform for sharing knowledge within the consortium as well as for reaching the widest audience possible, by means of modern IT technologies and social networks. Address issues of communication, social acceptance and liability in order to enable the project partners to fulfill their communication efforts and stakeholder involvement tasks.

Promote education, training and capacity building in the field of geological storage of CO2. Promote education and competence building by organizing formal educational courses for the international forum and related to this, develop course material for teaching. Promote education and competence building by affiliating of PhD students, Post-Doctoral scientists and Master students to the R&D work of TRUST.

Extrapolate the results of the project to the industrial scale application as well as to develop generic approaches for such upscaling. Upscaling of the monitoring strategies and network design for large scale; Preparation of protocols for site management; Formulation of best practices and recommendations and exploitation of results.

Project Results:
The consortium agreement was completed. The project manager and the Project Steering Committee carried out the project management according to the plan and without unsolvable problems. The Heletz facility instrumentation is now completed. We tested the monitoring technologies and prepared protocols for fluid sampling online onsite and analysis and storage for out of site analysis. The drilling of the shallow wells, to be instrumented for seismic monitoring is completed. The manufacturing of the downhole Electrical resistivity and Bragg sensors is completed. These have been successfully tested at the shallow site of Maguelone (France). The implementation of an active and passive seismic monitoring system is completed and will be deployed at Heletz during the winter of 2016. The development of KIS (Kinetic interface tracers) is continuing at the laboratory level. The use noble gases as tracers for the injection experiment at Heletz has been developed both at the modeling level and at the field level. The development of pressure tomography has been extended to heterogeneous formations and analyzed via modeling. The online visualization platform development has started and is tested at Heletz. A comprehensive set of simulations was carried out, to investigate the effect of different modes of injection to enhance trapping, with the objective to provide design guidance to Heletz CO2 injection experiments, including the impact of the temperature of the injected CO2. Model development included the integration of poro-elastic and thermo-elastic coupling terms into the IC Geomechanics Toolkit and the development of a more versatile code for the simulation of the reservoir and wellbore. Optimization of injection by temperature control, setting constraints on reservoir stability. We are developing combined models of capillary and dissolution trapping for the assessment of their combined impact on CO2 propagation and the concomitant risks of leakage. Simultaneously, we have developed stratified models of the flow of CO2-saturated brine, a key ingredient to predicting the rate at which CO2 may dissolve from the capillary fringe. The shallow wells located at CNRS premises have been prepared for the leakage mitigation experiment. Protocols for the injection of the mitigating solutions have been developed. The mitigating solutions have been developed and tested at the laboratory scale and procurement of the raw materials for the field experiment are underway. A strategy for the risk management at a CO2 injection site has been developed. It includes also the site management aspects. A specific procedure for the risk management at Heletz has been delineated and implemented on site. The project web site was completely redesigned and uploaded. Twitter and linkedIn were open. Public outreach has been dealt by approaching key experts in this area to our consortium meetings. An investigation of the liabilities problem for site certification and licensing has been completed. It identifies the existing regulatory framework in Israel that could be further developed to cover CO2 storage. A preliminary document for the establishment of an educational center at Heletz was outlined. The second TRUST course on CO2 storage was held in October 2015 in Montpellier with a substance participation of 29 students. Scientific dissemination included the contribution to a CCS book (Niemi, Bear and Bensabat, Springer, 2016), a special issue of the International Journal of Greenhouse Control (Niemi, Gouze and Bensabat) and a substantial number of peer-reviewed papers in scientific journals. Several evaluations of storage capacities have been conducted. Investigations on how to upscale local data to reservoir scale have been suggested. A statistical analysis of the TORIS database in order to understand typical characteristics of reservoirs has been conducted. Models are being tested for large scale industrial simulations of CO2 storage.
Potential Impact:
Expertise in the design of CO2 injection systems and their operation. Design of deep well instrumentation and completions for CO2 injection experiments (both injection and monitoring wells). Design and field preparation of co-injection of tracers and or impurities. Organization of site layout, taking into consideration security and safety issues. Onsite laboratory with comprehensive analysis technologies. Conducting a series of highly controlled CO2 injection experiments at Heletz, aimed at determining field-scale values of the key trapping mechanisms and the impact of heterogeneity on them. Co-injection of CO2 and impurities (both design and setting at the field). Developing and testing in the field of injection strategies aimed at enhancing the trapping and the stability of the stored CO2. Development of injection strategies based on the control of the temperature of the injected CO2 in order to reduce the cost of CO2 injection. Creating a comprehensive dataset for model validation. The Heletz site, which is heavily instrumented both in downhole technologies and above the ground technologies, is an available and sharable infrastructure, for CO2 injection experiments as well as for training and education. Allowing a deep understanding of the injection process, from the CO2 tank onsite to the reservoir. Injecting an amount of CO2 that will produce CO2 body in the reservoir with a sufficiently large footprint, so the results could be extrapolated to larger reservoirs and injection rates and amounts. Development and deployment of novel monitoring technologies (new temperature sensors by means of K-FBGA sensors, novel Electrical Resistivity sensor). Integrated monitoring platform (many technologies in one single well) for improved measurement. Development of a novel transfer line for the characterization of fluid samples lifted from the formation (able to provide precise information on the CO2 phase saturation and the dissolved CO2 under the reservoir conditions). Deployment of passive and active seismic monitoring at Heletz for the detection and tracking of the CO2 body from relatively shallow wells. Tools for online and real time visualization of key monitoring data (Pressure, temperature, DTS etc.), and for the data acquisition and storage from the control room in the site to a database server to be hosted in the project website. Development (continued from the EU-FP7 MUSTANG project) of smart, Kinetic Interface Sensitive, tracers capable of providing information of the interfacial area between water and CO2 in the formation. Extension of pressure tomography tools to the context of the two-phase water/brine-CO2. Large-scale modeling of CO2 injection, also using HPC (high performance computation) hardware and software, improved analysis (prediction and understanding) of the mechanical impacts of CO2 injection, including failure mechanism (fracture generation). Protocols of CO2 injection experiments aimed maximizing the trapping, minimizing the total cost of injection (reducing the energy required for injection). Demonstrating the safety and controllability of the CO2 storage at field scale. Development and testing at the laboratory scale of and field scale of sealing solutions capable of mitigating CO2 leaks in wells and or faults. Practical rules for the management and operation of CO2 injection sites and formal risk analysis and management, also including site management. Contribution to communication and dissemination capacity building and outreach of various types of publics by explaining and demonstrating the CO2 storage process at various degrees of simplification. Association of experts from various disciplines in order to better understand how to communicate the project findings. Addressing legal and regulatory aspects of the CO2 injection (above the ground) and storage processes. Addressing socio-economic aspects of CO2 storage. Extrapolating the lessons learned to larger, industrial scale, CO2 storage.
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