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Periodic Report Summary 1 - NOTEDEV (Novel Type of Terahertz Devices)

Notedev Initial Training Network –

Novel Type of Terahertz Devices

Terahertz (THz) sources and detectors have powerful potential for applications in biology, medicine, security and non-destructive testing. Some devices are currently in operation, but to benefit from the full potential of terahertz frequencies there is an urgent need for developments in efficient, cheap, reliable, scalable and portable THz devices.

Notedev is developing a range of technologies across one network so that it will be possible to compare the performance of devices across a range of variables such as bandwidth, operating temperature and stability. As a result, the fellows employed by the network are gaining a broad training across terahertz technology, and the commercial viability of any resulting devices will be optimised.

Notedev is composed of nine academic and industrial partners. The network has recruited fourteen Fellows: thirteen Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) and one Experienced Researcher (ER). Four of the ESRs are female.

The network has successfully achieved or made substantial progress towards most of the milestones and deliverables set for the first two years of the programme.
Scientific Deliverables

The comparison of different semiconductor THz surface emitters activated by a femtosecond 1.55 μm wavelength laser:

An investigation of (GaIn)(AsBi) grown on GaAS substrates has been undertaken. Their performance is comparable to Ga(AsBi) devices but the range of optical wavelengths
at which the detectors can be activated is considerably wider.

To develop a model and simulation code for a CNT-based frequency multiplier:

The extensive analysis of suitability of various chiral CNTs as frequency multipliers has been studied and their response to AC voltage simulated. It was shown that for device applications a precise selection of nanotube chirality is needed which is not yet technologically attainable. A general theory of Bloch oscillations in helical nanostructure subjected to external electric field has been formulated. Preliminary results were reported at two international conferences and the corresponding paper in preparation.

To develop a theoretical model and design of a CNT-array-based THz amplifier:

The theoretical model of a CNT-array-based THz amplifier was fully developed by the end of 2015. In addition to the original design based on CNTs we developed a new idea of using graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), as the active elements of an amplifier. This novel idea is based on the latest developments in planar graphene-based technology, which was not available when the original project was conceived.

A demonstration of tunable ferroelectric structures and comparison of their capabilities:

The contribution of the ferroelectric soft mode to dielectric permittivity is very high and its strongly anharmonic character close to phase transition gives the possibility of tuning the properties of material by means of an electric field. Structures composed of SrTiO3 films on various substrates have been studied. High values of the dielectric tunability at room temperature can be maintained across layers of at least 200 nm.

The Notedev Fellows

The progress of the Fellows can be seen in the number of conference presentations and papers that have already been achieved. Fourteen papers co-authored by the Notedev Fellows have either already been published or are in press, with another four submitted. The Fellows have given over forty conference presentations with more conference abstracts accepted.
One of the research papers, on patch antenna THz photodetectors, was highlighted in an editorial from Applied Physics Letters as part of a selection of “must-read findings on terahertz devices”.
The Fellows have formed an active network, using a Google forum and have regular talks and discussions via video-link. Collaborative visits and secondments between institutions have been successfully initiated.

As well as local training the Fellows have been involved in two network wide training activities. As well as scientific training the Fellows have benefited from general skills training in communication, impact, personal effectiveness, academic good practice, collaborative working, presentation skills and outreach skills. Fellows have also participated in an industrial training day with a site visit and talks from entrepreneurs and business people. Five ESRs attended an international summer school on Nanophotonics and Photovoltaics.
Many of the fellows are already participating in outreach activities at their host institution. A network outreach event was organised in Morocco where the Fellows met with local undergraduate students who were a dominantly female group. As well as having scientific discussions the local students were keen to learn about career paths in science and how they might be able to progress their studies in Europe.

Notedev Partner Institutions and Lead Scientists

Durham University, UK Dr Andrew Gallant – Scientific Co-ordinator,

University Paris Diderot, France, Professor Cristiano Ciuti.

Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, Lithuania, Professor Arūnas Krotkus.
St Petersburg Academic University, Russia, Professor Mikhail Kaliteevski,

Exeter University, UK, Professor Mikhail Portnoi

Institute of Physics, Academy of Science, Czech Republic, Dr Petr Kužel

University of Picardie Jules Verne, France, Professor Igor Lukyanchuk

University of Iceland, Professor Ivan Shelykh

Alpes Lasers SA, Switzerland , Dr Antoine Müller

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United Kingdom
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