Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS



Project ID: 605267
Funded under: FP7-SME
Country: Croatia

Final Report Summary - HOTPHASEDARRAY (High Temperature Pipe Structural Health Monitoring System utilising Phased Array probes on TOFD configuration)

Executive Summary:
Uncertainties in the calculation of the lifetime of superheated steam pipes in power plants that contain a minor defect create situations with potentially catastrophic results, typically costing €120 million per event. Superheated steam pipes are periodically inspected and depending on their defects sizes they may be replaced after a lifetime assessment has been performed. Common errors in defect sizing create dangerous situations as size underestimation will result in a pipe prone to failure. Inetec and Enkon face this difficult issue when performing inspections for their customers thus the need for a frequent in-service and accurate monitoring of defects on pipes was identified.
The final goal of the HotPhasedArray project was to develop a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system for superheated steam pipes. The expected benefits of the project were:
• Increased safety in electrical production power plants;
• Elimination of catastrophic accidents from superheated steam pipe failures;
• Decrease of the required shut-down time for inspection purposes;
• Increase in confidence in the operational safety of thermal power and nuclear energy plants.
In this report, the outcome from the HotPhasedArray project is summarised. Within the HotPhasedArray, the consortium has developed a SHM system based on phased array on time of flight diffraction configuration dedicated for in-service defect detection and condition monitoring of superheated steam pipes. A bespoke test facility has also been selected as part of this project for demonstration purposes of the technology developed within the project. The address of the project public website has been built and interpreted. The use and dissemination of foreground was organised and execuded through publications and various dissemination activities.

Project Context and Objectives:
Electricity generation in the EU is currently and will continue in the near future to be done using steam turbine plants. Even though these plants use the steam as a medium in the energy transformation process, the most common power sources for heating the steam include conventional fossil fuels and nuclear. Generally, the higher the pressure and the temperature of the steam entering the turbine, the greater the efficiency of the electrical generator; thus the goal of both manufacturers and operators is to carry as hot and more pressurized steam as possible from the boilers to the steam turbines. As a result, a typical electricity power plant (0.5GW) has approximately 4km of pipes operating at temperatures of 580°C and pressures of 400bars. The continuous increase of electrical power consumption led many to rethink nuclear power as a viable and green solution for Europe. Specifically, nuclear power plants are the largest electricity source in the EU amounting to about 30% of total production. There are 146 nuclear plants in the European Union with a mean age of 27 years [1]; more than 75% of them have entered their second half of operational lifetime. Plant aging raises serious safety issues as the risk of creep and fatigue related defects are linked to total operational lifetime.
High temperature pipe cracks are the root of a steam power failure in the EU typically every 4 years [2], resulting in loss of human life, serious accidents, widespread power cuts and massive financial losses for the operators. According to IAEA’s Reference Technology Database [3] such an event on a nuclear power plant has an average cost of €120 million, including outage costs, emergency repair costs, insurance and legal costs. Since only one growing crack is needed to cause a major failure, they have to be inspected and monitored thoroughly.
Breakdowns at these extreme conditions (580°C, 400bar) are a result of two major weld failure modes:
a) Creep cracks near pipe welds: As the high pressures produce a constant hoop stress on the full length of the pipe and high temperatures increase creep deformation.
b) Fatigue cracks on pipe welds: As vibrations produce cyclic stresses that lead to fatigue type damage.
Additionally, the most prone to defects areas include thick section pipes and headers, which are mostly composed of ferritic steels. Particularly, all over the world the most common material for steam pipes and headers is the P91 steel, primarily employed for T≤593°C. In Europe for steam temperatures up to 620°C, E911 steel is used as it presents increased high-T strength capabilities. Beyond 620°C, 12% Cr steels are employed with HT91 steel being the most popular choice in European power plants [4].
Crack-growth behaviour presents three distinct phases: (a) Crack nucleation, (b) Steady state regime of linear crack growth and (c) Unsteady regime of rapid crack growth leading to fracture [5]. Practically, the most important factor for crack severity assessment, i.e. growth rate, cannot be monitored since during planned outages only crack size is measured. As a result, the severity of a crack is judged upon statistical correlation of the size and the total operational time.
Current maintenance practise is to proceed with repairs on a detected crack according to its severity. For cost reasons, cracks that are not judged as severe enough will not be repaired. Crack severity judgement is based on its probability to cause a failure and this probability is derived taking into account the crack size and operational lifetime. More variables such as operating temperature and vibrations may rarely be found in other studies. Recent data from fracture mechanical statistical studies [6] shows this connection between the size of a crack on a nuclear power plant pipe and its probability to lead to a failure.
For instance, even a 6mm crack on a 25 year old nuclear plant has a probability of over 1:5000 to lead to a catastrophic failure. In this situation if a crack of that size is detected it will be repaired. However, according to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) a number of difficulties are related to probabilistic structural integrity analysis, the most important of which include: result communication to decision maker, interpretation of calculations, and modelling of the engineering structure to be studied as well as the selected data upon analysis is based [7]. Currently employed deterministic approaches have not been able to accurately predict the risk of failure resulting in higher remaining life calculation for the tested components. Additionally, tools such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been prove promising in analysing engineering systems however it is computationally expensive, time consuming and the correlation between FEA and reliability analysis is usually not straightforward. Moreover, qualitative risk assessment analysis even though quite useful in the absence of numerical data, largely depends on the expertise of the user and provides a broad categorization of risk.
The majority of cracks are undersized by a standard deviation of 2.2mm. Such a sizing error would underestimate the severity of a 6mm crack by a thousand times (1:1000000 chance of failure instead of 1:5000) leading to letting a prone to failure pipe to remain in service. The crack accuracy issues combined with the fact that programmed inspections occur in 4 years intervals and taking into account the importance of crack’s growth rate in all failure modes, lead to the following conclusion; the requirement of a continuous crack monitoring system that will report crack growth for Europe’s aging nuclear power plants is pressing.
To overcome the above problems, the HotPhasedArray consortium has realised a solution that uses a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system for high temperature, high pressure pipelines. The developed system has employed novel Phased Array (PA) ultrasonic probes able to withstand and continuously operate at 580°C. The system could be permanently mounted on superheated steam pipes, at locations of known defects and it could continuously monitor their size. However, this supposes that defects have already been detected by a traditional method during an outage, thus the insulation will have already been removed. The PA transducers have been placed according to the Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) technique’s topology, thus creating a novel configuration. Particularly, the high temperature transducers have been placed on either side of the weld where the crack being monitored is located.
The HotPhasedArray system is supported by a fully quantitative probabilistic model that will identify the real risk of failure using material distribution and accurate stress values. The system software is able to analyse the phased array signals used both in the innovative TOFD configuration and the typical pulse echo from both sides. The developed transducer and the pulser receiver have been has been demonstrated in laboratory, and the high temperature capability of the transducers was validated in laboratory conditions at up to 580°C.
It was not feasible to carry out the site trials at high temperature due to concerns for operator safety and difficulties in deployment of the system at high temperature such as issues with coupling. Hence, the trials had to be carried out during an outage. The official site trials were performed in TE-TO Power plant in Zagreb, Croatia. Further site validation is needed at elevated temperatures post project prior to commercialisation.
Conclusively, a system was successfully designed with an original concept for implementation of the time of flight diffraction testing configuration using phased array probes at elevated temperatures. The probes, software and field deployable hardware were integrated and deployed for trials in the field. The system was effectively calibrated using specimens containing crack like flaws and trials in the field showed that the system could be deployed on pipework in the power plant. A solution for deploying the probes in TOFD configuration while the pipework is at operational temperatures needs to be validated over a longer period of time on a live plant. This will be the primary aim of the future course of this project. With this verification evidence the Consortium is confident that the outcomes of this project can be commercially exploited.

[1] IFO Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich
[2] Shepherd, Gandossi & Simola, Link Between Risk-Informed In-Service Inspection and Inspection Qualification, ENIQ Report No 36, EUR 23928, 2009.
[4] R. Viswanathan, J.F. Henry, J. Tanzosh, G. Stanko, J. Shingledecker, B. Vitalis, and R. Purgert, “U.S. Program on Materials Technology for Ultra-Supercritical Coal Power Plants”, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 14, pp. 281, 2005.
[5] V. Giurgiutiu, “Structural Health Monitoring with piezoelectric wafer active sensors”, Elsevier Inc. 2008.
[6] Y. Kanto et al, “Recent Japanese research activities on probabilistic fracture mechanics for pressure vessel and piping of nuclear power plant”, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 87, pp. 11, 2010.
[7] M. Baker, “Improved generic strategies and methods for reliability-based structural integrity assessment”, Health and Safety Executive, Research Report 642, 2008.
[8] N. Nakagawa, F. Inanc, A. A. Frishman, R. B. Thompson, W. R. Junker, F. H. Ruddy, A. R. Dulloo, J. M. Beatty, N. G. Arlia, “On-line NDE and Structural Health Monitoring for advanced reactors”, Key Engineering Materials, 321-323, pp.234, 2006.
Project Results:
Through the HotPhasedArray project, the consortium carried out technical and management work as planned in the DoW in eight workpackages (WPs): WP1 end user requirements and project specifications; WP2 Defect detection technique development; WP3 Development of high temperature probes; WP4 Pulser/receiver electronics development; WP5 HotPhasedArray system integration; WP6 HotPhasedArray system demonstration; WP7 Result Dissemination and Exploitation activities and WP8 Management and Coordination. Individual S&T results are summarised as follows.

WP1 End user requirements and project specifications
WP1 has been completed to (1) determine the components to be inspected and type of defects to be detected; (2) identify the exact requirements of the end users so that they will be able to take advantage of the HotPhasedArray Structural Health Monitoring; (3) define the exact system specifications in order to fulfil the requirements and guide the technical work to follow; (4) determine the demonstration activities. Deliverable D1.1 “End user requirements and project specifications” has been fulfilled and submitted on time. In the document, an overview of the plans for delivery of the technical work packages, and details of the location of the site trial has been discussed. To determine the end user requirements, a questionnaire has been prepared and circulated to appropriate end users. The feedback from the end users has been considered and incorporated so that the HotPhasedArray system would be relevant to industry needs.

WP2 Defect detection technique development
In WP2, the Defect detection technique using ultrasound phased array in time of flight diffraction configuration, as well as a probabilistic model and a probabilistic life assessment has been developed. In D2.1 “Development of the Phased Array Time-of-Flight Diffraction Technique”, an overview of technique development for the inspection of butt weld in P91 pipe for the monitoring of vertical heat-affected-zone (HAZ) crack at high temperature has been discussed.
The D2.2 “Signal Processing, defect sizing and accessory sub-routines” targeted at presenting the signal processing steps performed by the HotPhasedArray system. The design of the overall signal processing software component has been presented and shown in Figure 4. The characteristics of each software component have been discussed. In addition, the basic signal processing steps have been implemented on simulated signals.
In the D2.3, by defining the probability of failure (POF), the component with high risk level could be identified and it was possible through Risk-based inspection (RBI) assessment to set inspection and maintenance plans in order to obtain maximum value from the associated budgets. During this task, the material properties of P91 have been reviewed and a numerical model has been generated to predict 1) remaining life of each weld; 2) establishing POF curves for each weld, and 3) detection of the effectiveness of each risk factors and mitigation actions.
The probabilistic life assessment software presents the inspection results in an easy to understand format. Specifically, the software calculates the time-to-rupture and Probability of Failure (PoF) based on pipe characteristics (diameter and thickness) and operational parameters (pressure and temperature). The PoF is plotted as a function of years provides a better understanding of the risk level contributing to the development of an optimum inspection and maintenance plan. Additionally, the software includes a sensitivity analysis component which provides more information about the influence of different risk factors so that a best mitigation plan can be implemented. Towards this direction, four alternative routes have been established (1) temperature reduction, (2) reduction of failure trigger level, (3) reduction of scatter band and (4) stress reduction. Results evidenced that the reduction of temperature, failure trigger level and stress resulted in increased time-to-rupture periods shifting the PoF curves further in future. On the other hand, it was shown that the reduction of scatter band resulted in a slight increase of PoF due to the higher level of certainty involved with the material’s properties.

WP3 Development of high temperature probes
In the WP3, high temperature probes have been developed. There are three deliverables associated with this WP. Piezoelectric materials testing and the final probe design have been carried out in D3.1. The experimental set for characterisation is shown in Figure 7. A summary of the current state of the art in high temperature ultrasound PA probe developments have been presented, which included work carried out in this area by other researchers. A number of piezoelectric materials suitable for operation at high temperatures have been discussed. Bismuth Titanate and Gallium Orthophosphate have been selected and characterized via impedance measurements at elevated temperatures. In addition, a range of array parameters have been determined using CIVA and PA probe components have been studied considering high temperature solutions/alternatives as well as a final probe design.
D3.2 reported the prototype probe construction and testing, including the following aspects: (1) commercially available gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4) single crystal was selected as a piezoelectric material for operation at temperatures up to 580°C. A series of confidence-building tests at HT were performed on the material (electrical characterisation using impedance method) and proved this material meeting the requirement for the application. In order to verify the results of the experimental work, modelling of piezoelectric response of a GaPO4 element at HT was performed using COMSOL simulation package. The experimental and modelling results were in a good agreement, which was very encouraging to proceed with the PA probe design using GaPO4 single crystal piezoelectric material. (2) The prototype probe is designed through individual investigation of piezoelectric and sub-components. High temperature long term test on GaPO4 shows the feasibility of using it for the HT PA probe, where the prototype of PA without assembly is shown in Figure 8. The subcomponents such as electrodes, wedge, acoustic coupling and wiring were investigated and selected via either experiment or simulation. Furthermore, the prototype design of the PA probe was proposed. The wedge in stainless steel was designed to interface the active elements of the transducer with the surface of testing at high operating temperatures. (3) Modelling of ultrasound PA transducer at room temperature proved the concept of focusing the beam in the specimen under test with pre-set time delays. Results of the focusing from PZT-5A and GaPO4 in COMSOL simulation package showed the agreement with the results from CIVA modelling. Although the average amplitude of displacement for GaPO4 array is two orders less than that of PZT-5A array, GaPO4 should retain its ultrasound generation property up to the target temperature of 580°C. (4) Ultrasonic tests on single GaPO4 element in pulse / echo mode were conducted. The tests show that single GaPO4 element work as a functional UT transducer, shown in Figure 8. (5) A prototype PA probe with the new design was produced using PZT as the active element to validate the design. The second prototype utilises GaPO4 as the active element.

WP4 Pulser/receiver electronics development
Pulser/receiver electronics has been developed via WP4. Two deliverables on (1) Pulser Receiver unit and (2) Pulser Receiver application programming interface and control sub-routines have been submitted.
The D4.1 describes the initial research process performed before starting the design process of the pulser/receiver unit to understand and analyse the technical specifications and requirements of the pulser/receiver hardware. The low level hardware design process (transistor/resistance level) has been described in a modular way. Initially, a single channel has been designed, simulated and tested. Secondly, this single channel has been scaled up and the input and output system range has been increased. A set of PCB layouts have been designed and routed (including all electronic components) taking into account different hardware configurations and number of layers. Both cases directly impact on the overall size of the PCB and the quality of the system (Signal Noise Ratio, Crosstalk, speed).
During the developing process of this technical task, and due to its huge technical complexity, the project budget and deadlines, the project partners planned, as a back up, the procurement process of a commercial OEM phased array pulser/receiver unit from M2M. This OEM unit has been used as part of the final HotPhasedArray device; see deliverable D5.1, in order not to introduce any delay or negative impact on the rest of the project tasks. Additionally, in parallel, the project partners have also decided to continue the developing process of the custom phased array pulser/receiver unit outside the critical path of the project schedule.
In the D4.2, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed; through the GUI the operator controls all the functionalities of the HotPhasedArray system. Specifically, the GUI enables the control of (1) the signal processing software, (2) the probabilistic software, (3) the pulser receiver device and (4) the web-database.
The basic structure of the GUI was reported and described; the GUI consists of three parts (1) the commands toolbar which allows the user to start/stop the inspection, (2) the configuration area for configuring the inspection system and (3) the imaging area which displays the inspection results. The imaging area of the GUI was developed in such a way to enable the easy visualization of the inspection results. Towards this direction, three tabs were implemented (1) the “A-Scan tab” responsible for presenting the A-Scan data, (2) the “C-Scan tab” responsible for presenting the acquired C-Scan data and (3) the “Delays tab” responsible for presenting the time delays implemented on each sensing element of transmit and receive probes. Each phased array probe consists of 16 elements and the HotPhasedArray pulser receiver allows full control over each element. It should be noted that the time delays are automatically calculated from the implemented PA on TOFD configuration algorithm. Additionally, a colour scale representation scheme of the signal amplitude was implemented to display the inspection results. Furthermore, the configuration area allows the user to set-up the HotPhasedArray system, and specifically (1) to configure the area where the beam is focused (focusing tab), (2) to enter the probe parameters (probe tab), (3) to configure the pulser/receiver hardware device (device tab) and (4) to adjust the scale of the color representation (interface tab).
The GUI allows the operator to save the data in XML files which contain the C-scan and the corresponding A-scans, the delay laws and all the configurations used during each measurement. Moreover, the ability to import in the GUI previously saved XML files has been added in order to allow for further inspection of the results. Additionally, the C-Scan data acquired by the system are uploaded and saved in an online database which is supported with web-access functionalities for post visualization and processing of the acquired data. Effort was placed to make the web-interface of the database compatible with most popular web browsers, i.e. Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome.
The developed software was specifically optimised for the HotPhasedArray application. The optimisation process was based on a number of experiments performed in the laboratory and during the project’s field trials. The HotPhasedArray system is required to operate at a temperature range; hence the automatic calculation of the sound velocity at different temperatures was implemented on a software level for the pipe and the wedge of the probes. The optimised parameters of the software were discussed; these include parameters related to (1) the scanning area between the pulse/emit probes, (2) the HotPhasedArray ultrasonic probes, (3) the pulser/receiver device and (4) the colour-scale representation of the inspection data. Additionally, the fine-tuning of the database and its web-interface took place. This feature allows the operators of the HotPhasedArray system to remotely control the system and view through its’ web-interface the inspection results. Hence, the developed web-access features of the HotPhasedArray system allow the operators to remotely check the performance of the system and identify in-advance evolving problems that might occur during the operation of the system as well as growing defects in the inspected pipe. The end result of the optimization process was the final software fine-tuned specifically for the HotPhasedArray application.

WP5 HotPhasedArray system integration
The HotPhasedArray system has been integrated in the WP5 associated with the D5.1 “Complete HotPhasedArray System”. As it has been highlighted in the previous WPs, The HotPhasedArray system (Hardware and Software) has been successfully assembled, integrated, installed and configured. The integrated system is shown in Figure 12 and Figure 13. The validation process has been performed in laboratory conditions using samples with known defects.

WP6 HotPhasedArray system demonstration
The system demonstration and optimisation have been conducted in WP6. The consortium has made contact with power plants at the start of the project and HEP d.d. TE-TO power plant in Zagreb, Croatia had complied in the technology and facilitating the site trials. It was not feasible to carry out the site trials at high temperature due to concerns for operator safety and difficulties in deployment of the system at high temperature such as issues with coupling. Hence, the trials had to be carried out during an outage. The official site trials were performed in TE-TO Power plant in Zagreb. Partners from three consortium companies were on site: Nikolaos Marinos (IKH), Petar Mateljak (INETEC) and Mario Kostan (BIC). System’s demonstration in power plant is presented in D6.1.

WP7 Result Dissemination and Exploitation activities
Dissemination and Exploitation activities have been carried out in WP7. The HotPhasedArray project website, project logo and content have been presented in the D7.1. The Interim Plan for the Use and Dissemination of Knowledge, Dissemination Material, leaflets & videos, finalized plan for Plan for the Use and Dissemination of Foreground (PUDF) have been completed and reported in D7.2, D7.3 and D7.4, respectively. A project video showing all the steps of the project has been produced as the D7.5.

WP8 Management and Coordination
The Consortium Agreement has been signed and minutes and attendance lists of project meetings have been recorded in WP8.
By completing all the WPs above, the objectives for the HotPhasedArray project have been accomplished as follows:
• To specify end-user requirement and finalise project specification;
• To develop defect detection technique using PA/TOFD technique;
• To develop high temperature PA probes;
• To finalise pulser-receiver electronics
• To integrate HotPhasedArray system and demonstrate on site trial
• To disseminate and exploit results

Potential Impact:
The HotPhasedArray system will be taken up by the power plant operators and their specialist subcontractors, particularly for operators of ageing plants, where there is a demand to manage life extension and safety. Current inspection methods require shutting down parts of the plant to allow inspection at room temperature, which is costly. Current systems are somewhat inaccurate, increasing the probability of dangerous sudden failure. The system should operate automatically, preventing exposure of workers to hazardous conditions. User needs are summarised as follows:
Plant opeartors:
• Continuous in-situ inspection of high temperature pipes
• High resolution for increased probability of crack detection
• Automatic operation
• CE marked – standards compliant
NDT service providers:
• Robust reliable inspection tools
• Cost-effective deployment + product cost
• CE marked – standards compliant
The HotPhasedArray system has been designed specifically to meet all the requirements of both the plant operators and the NDT service providers. The HotPhasedArray technology is the first system that allows automated testing to be performed in service conditions to accurately and consistently measure crack development over time. Permanent installation of the system reduces human interference after installation. The high sensitivity of defect detection enables the HotPhasedArray system to detect minor defects at early stage with 99.5% probability of detection; Capability of operating temperature extends reliability in real operating conditions and reduces both planned and unplanned shut-down time.
According to the Standard ASTM E-1961-98, it is stated that “A 10 cm (4.0 in.) wide scanning area on each side of the weld shall be clear”. The HotPhasedArray only needs a pair of probes to cover the required area, where other solutions need more than ten pairs of transducers except Thermal-scan 700. As a result, the cost of HotPhasedArray is significantly lower than competitors.
Type of market, market size, growth rate and market trends
The primary market for our technology will be the NDT testing companies (Enkon, Inetec, X-R-I Testing, SGS, Intertek) serving the power industry, and power plant operators in the coal, oil, gas, and nuclear sectors.
Nuclear is an important source of electrical energy with more than 500 large nuclear power plants all over the world (185 within EU27) . In 2013, nuclear produced 2457 TWh representing 10.8% of the world’s electricity supply . In 2006, nuclear energy provided 31% of electricity within the EU27 countries with a production of 990 TWh and an installed capacity of 134 GW (17.6% of all installed capacity). Nuclear is the leading electric power source in Belgium, France, Hungary, Lithuania and Slovakia. France produced 450 TWh in 2006 (45% of the EU's total).
Coal and gas present 9146 TWh and 5096 TWh with a percentage of 40.2% and 22.4% of the overall electricity production in 2012, respectively. Coal and gas will be the two major power generation sources up to 2030. The installed capacities of these two sources will increase steadily. As the increase of power generation capacity to be installed, the number of SHSPs will increase.
Nuclear power plants, particularly, are ageing and prone to accelerated erosion due to neutron-induced embrittlement. . Likewise, for traditionally fuelled power stations, the pressure piping, which often runs even hotter than for nuclear plants (up to 580°C) is prone to catastrophic failures due to high pressures and vibrations. The demand on essential monitoring on the installed and aging SHSPs will constantly increase. This leads to a growing market for the HotPhasedArray product.
In 2012 there were 62,500 power plants with a capacity of 30 MW or greater operating around the world.
Market Size: Assuming a nominal lifetime of 25 years, 20% of these will be operating within their last five years (or beyond their design lifetime), providing 12,500 ageing plants as a potential global market for HotPhasedArray, of which an estimated 1,625 (13%) are in Europe.
The aging of power plants in Europe results in more SHSPs needing to be monitored more regularly to make sure they are functional. From the data shown in Figure 15, more than half of gas power plants and 80% of nuclear and coal power plants have been used more than 10 years. A large portion of the plants exceed 30 years. Those plants have much more demands on the monitoring of their SHSPs to avoid catastrophic failures. Therefore, the European market provides HotPhasedArray a sufficient platform for commercialisation. Within the European market Germany and France will be the initial focus, because Gemany have large amount of capacity in coal and gas plants with comparably the highest O&M costs among the European generators, while France have a large percentage of nuclear capacity with almost the highest O&M costs.

Technical, Social and Environmental Benefits
Technical: The commercial deployment of a high temperature ultrasonic detection system represents a major technical achievement that will lay the foundations for new technology developments in other fields, including for example high temperature sensing and actuation in aircraft and automotive applications, high temperature sensing and transducers in process and chemical industries, high temperature sterilisation tolerant medical transducers.
Social: The main social benefits will be in jobs creation (200 new jobs within the consortium) and in improved safety of operation of the power plant.
Environmental: The direct environmental impact will be to improve the safety and reliability of all kinds of thermal power generation, reducing the occurrence or likelihood of environmentally damaging accidents, particularly in nuclear plant. HotPhasedArray will contribute to the overall reliability and safety of nuclear plant, thus enhancing the prospects for safe sustainable nuclear energy to remove dependence on environmentally damaging fossil fuels. Lower operating costs for power plant will help make carbon mitigation measures such as carbon capture more economically feasible in fossil-fuelled plant, helping reduce carbon emissions.

Economic benefits
Benefits to Users: Costs associated with planned and un-planned outages and maintenance amount to €97M for each plant each year . This cost comprises two components: 1) the cost of purchasing replacement power to meet contractual obligations. Although planned service outages are scheduled for periods of low demand, (wholesale prices are up to 50% lower) for unplanned outages, operators must purchase replacement power on the expensive spot market where prices in 2011 were up to €100 per MWh. A 500MW plant which is shut down loses between €0.6M and €1.2M per day plus the same amount to purchase replacement power–in total €2.8M- €4.8M per day per 1GW. 2) Costs associated with the maintenance activities. According to information received from our network of power station operator customers, the cost of planned service outage for nuclear plants for (500MW) is approximately €500k per day. We estimate that the successful implementation of the HotPhasedArray system will reduce unplanned outages by 10% saving nearly €5M per year per plant. With experience, the operators may be able also to save a further 5% of planned annual outages (€2.5M) due to increased awareness. With an initial sales cost for the HotPhasedArray system of €345k, the cost of the installation of the system will be recovered very quickly. The system will reduce the probability of catastrophic failures by 15% (€15M), where the costs related to such incidents can exceed €100M for each event.
Benefits to the Consortium: A single HotPhasedArray unit comprises 2 high temperature probes with probe holders (each €12,850), pulser/receiver unit (€10,000), data collector (€5000), deployment system (€15000), software (€10,000), training (€7,000), integration (€50,000), packaging and logistics (€5000), costing €127.7k in total. Overall, the estimated selling price of the system is €345k with a margin of 63%.
A service interval of 1 per year is assumed for all in-service systems. The investment of €4.2M (€2.1M EC grant, €0.6M industry contribution and €1.5M additional funding is recovered in just over 1 year. Within 5 years, the business created by the HotPhasedArray is expected to generate 200 new jobs within the consortium. The distribution of profits between consortium partners will be based on their respective contributions to the development and manufacturing implementation costs, and value added by their commercial activities. This will be the subject of supply and licensing agreements that will be negotiated during commercialisation.
Product Lifecycle: The target market for HotPhasedArray is likely to grow steadily in the medium term. Fossil fuel consumption is unlikely to decrease in the short to medium term (10 years), and thermal power through biomass combustion, or nuclear is likely to form an important part of the low carbon generating capacity. However, new inspection technologies will supplant HotPhasedArray, leading to an anticipated peak in sales within 10-15 years. During this time, the consortium will reinvest in R&D to build on the successful collaboration with UBRUN to develop the next generation of NDT solutions for what will be a different market based on different generating technologies with different needs to today.

List of Websites:
The HotPhasedArray project website, project logo and the site content have been finalised in communication with the partners. The website has been used to support dissemination activities. It has also supported the communication between the members of the consortium. The project website has been used as a database to upload information. The content of the website has been updated periodically.
The domain name and the project logo have been selected and designed for the consortium during the website preparation. In addition, all partners have been asked to link the HotPhasedArray project website with their respective websites.
It should be noted that the domain name has been registered for an initial period of 3 years and it will be maintained. Therefore, the website has also been available for dissemination purposes after the completion of the project. This enabled the consortium to publicise the results obtained and research carried out during the work programme.
The website contains:
Public area: The public area gives an overview of the project and explains the goals of the consortium during the work programme. There are links to respective company websites. In the future, it is planned to publicise project activities and some of the results on the website. All content to be published on the website will be reviewed and agreed by the entire consortium prior to being uploaded in order to protect intellectual property rights (IPR).
Members area: This area is password protected and it can be only accessed by the members of the consortium. The consortium members will have online access to selective documents; agendas, presentations and meeting minutes as well as the reports produced during the project period. All documents and papers that are relevant to the project will also be uploaded onto the website for member use with the agreement of the exploitation manager.
News and events section: This will list the news and oncoming events that are relevant to the project and it will be updated by all members during the project.

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