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3Ccar Report Summary

Project ID: 662192
Funded under: H2020-EU.

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - 3Ccar (Integrated Components for Complexity Control in affordable electrified cars)

Reporting period: 2015-06-01 to 2016-05-31

Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project

We are living in an era in which Asian countries are setting up extremely large vertical supply chains Europe cannot afford; European manufacturing in all high tech sectors is gradually and continuously decreasing. In such a context where competition is intended as a commercial state supported war, sharing knowledge amongst research teams across Europe is likely the most effective route to follow for Europe to keep state of the art technology developments. 3Ccar sets the collaborative environment amongst over 45 research teams sharing visions and objectives in a well-defined exponentially growing area: electromobility. Because the underlying technology is widely acknowledged to cross cut all sectors of mobility, the research community of this project, although clearly focused on road transport, is also considering direct exploitations of the developed solutions in other application contexts.

About 20 million vehicles are recalled in a year with a record of over 30 million in 2004 , many because of software issues related to electronic systems such as cruise control, antilock braking, traction control, and stability control. 3Ccar proposes new and scalable methods to evaluate such controls in a realistic and open setting. The increasing complexity of software in automotive systems has resulted in the rise of firmware-related vehicle recalls due to undetected bugs and software faults . AUTOSAR (Automotive Open System Architecture) represents a significant effort to incorporate automotive software testing and verification at the design stage; however, current automotive systems lack a systematic approach and infrastructure to support post-market runtime diagnostics for control software. Once a vehicle leaves the dealership lot, its performance and operation safety are a “black box” to the manufacturers and the original equipment providers. Amongst the standard diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) for software none targets the ECU software even though systems such as stability, cruise, and traction control are critical for safety.

The wait-and-see approach to recalls has a significant cost in both time and money and may have a negative impact on the vehicle manufacturer’s reputation. Consequently, there is an urgent need for systematic post-market in-vehicle diagnostics for control system software so that issues can be detected early. 3Ccar proposes in-vehicle systems that could monitor sensor values, perform runtime evaluation of the states of the system controls and could allow remote reprogramming. 3Ccar is the first European project in our knowledge addressing the development of common-standard HW-SW platforms that could allow the remote monitoring of the critical parameters and the update of the software. This would have a considerable impact on the design of new architectures and on security. In view of more automated functionalities, from car parking to full autonomous driving, the remote update of powertrain and steering software related functions would become an ever-increasing problem-opportunity addressed for the first time by 3Ccar.

System partitioning is more and more crucial to assure higher robustness, simplicity, higher fail-safe redundancy, cost reduction and simplified maintenance independency from suppliers. Rather than stressing system integration, EVs demand smart partitioning of the macro functionalities. For example, the conventional approach adopted by most OEMs relying on a multifunctional centralized body computer will be challenged by 3Ccar approaching the overall system design with a high level of partitioning allowing OEMs to become more independent from suppliers, reducing complexity and related costs, simplifying maintenance, monitoring and update the functionalities.

In the last two decades European policy and research have lead to impressive achievements in both road safety and reduction of air pollution. European roads are the safest in the world with less than half fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants than America. European cars and cities are the cleanest of the world; the average CO2 and noxious emissions of EU cars are 30-40% lower than American cars. Emissions control and safety features have allowed European automotive manufacturers to continue sharing a good position in the market (19% of total Motor Vehicle production, 23% of passenger car production).

These positions and achievements of Europe are mostly attributed to the evolution of smartness in vehicle developments, that is, electronics.

The collaboration proposed in 3Ccar is the natural continuation of the same virtuous process started with the project ENIAC E3CAR later on complemented by projects launched in Artemis and within the EU Green Car Initiative. The results achieved are impressive. In only four years of developments Europe has succeeded to radically reduce the existing gap on high power electronics and more in general on electromobility with Japan who kept a focus on hybrids technologies for over seventeen years.
The overall sector of transport and specifically the success of the EU motor industry generating a turnover of 840B€ in 2011 depends more and more on the level of collaborations that will establish with the semiconductor and smart system community. The largest the specialized community is the better.

Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far

According to the relation between the different technical 3Ccar work packages and project phases outlined in Figure 1, the focus of the work done in period 1 lay on the “requirements and specification phase”. In addition the development phase was successfully started. Progress is according to plan in the development work packages WP2-WP5. In few tasks there is a slight delay which will be recovered during the remaining two project periods.

a) Progress at WP level

The requirements and specifications phase (work package WP1) was driven by OEMs (in particular Daimler). System level requirements were refined into specifications for subsystems, modules and components. For every subsystem addressed in the project, there was a task where the involved partners defined the requirements and specifications in close coordination with the OEMs. This includes the requirements and specifications of the following subsystems: battery system with integrated electronic in the battery cells, integrated power train and realted emebedded power modules, high-efficiency fuel cell system, domain controller, high-speed communication, on-board charger, MEMS and sensors, power modules and actuators.

Work package 2 is dedicated to the system level design. A manifold of measures was applied and activities were initiated to arrive at the optimum system design in the end: Simulation models for different component and Subsystems were developed, various properties are investigated through simulation. Different techniques are explored, e.g. requirement derivation for specification, safety goal formulation through system and hardware safety requirements, co-simulation and HiL, and integration of FPGA-based SoC into system level drive-cycle simulation, Modelica library for physical components (motor), SystemC-FMI integration with realtime capabilities. The models were elaborated for different electric vehicle components and subsystems, such as battery system component modeling, sensors, communication, module, dc/dc converter, wheel hub drive solution with integrated power electronics, smart modules and fuel cell system, smart actuators and domain controller architecture definition (control concept evaluations, quantity identification, preliminary architectural concept, integration with applications and controller evaluation (AURIX) with focus on ISO26262 and performance. In view of the generic work flow a model based design conpect was applied and X-in-the-loop setups were elaborated. Combined with suitable tools and automation the envisioned efficiency improvements shall be achieved.

Within the frame of WP3 work towards the complete spectrum of nanoelectronics devices and modules was started. Activities include the development of sensing devices and analysis of communication and packaging technologies for integration in battery cells, the development of semiconductor-based components for the smart modules and fuel cell system, technology and device development of safety-critical applications (including innovative FMEDA platform), the development of components for the high-speed and wireless backbone for in-vehicle networking, the technology development for embedded power modules, the embedding of components into drives, the development of an inverter subsystem, digital communication, domain platform sensors and MEMS, the development of integrated smart pixel control module, the development of a V2X unit for car-2-x communications and the developement of new motor control and door zone sub-modules based on BCD technology.

WP4 is concentrating on embedded systems and computing algorithms. Its main objective is to develop algorithms, methods and technologies to reduce the number of ECUs and enable novel functionalities like Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS). The reduction of the number of ECUs and their replacement by a reduced number of domain controllers (typically 5 for a car) with a great level of similarity requires the development of new algorithms and methods. Novel functionalities require more computing power and thus the emphasis will be on parallelization to take advantage of the new multicore architectures. Although there is significant diversity of activities, the embedded systems and algorithms to be developed aim at achieving an increased level of abstraction and enhanced HW/SW integration. In addition, model-driven techniques and predictive strategies will be used in most of the Supply Chains. In general terms, the activities are according to plan, with preliminary tasks where requirements have been translated into HW/SW architectures, and some other where tools and methods have been introduced/adapted to design and develop SW for the specific goals of their corresponding Supply Chains.

Despite the fact that WP5 (System Integration and Demonstration) and WP6 (Validation and Tests) will officially start in period 2, work performed in period 1 showed that there was a need to initiate some preliminary tasks ahead of the time plan, in particular with view on system integration and test coverage. Thus, there were already some activities by few partners.

b) Supply Chains to validate the achievements

To validate the demanding overall project targets, the multidisciplinary consortium of 3Ccar has defined three groups of so-called supply chains (SC). A supply chain is centred on a specific demonstrator and defines the interfaces between the work packages that are necessary for its realization. The three groups of supply chains in 3Ccar are defined according to the Value Strategy outlined in Figure 2.

Ten supply chains were defined to demonstrate and validate the progress in the different technology areas targeted at in 3Ccar: The core of the project is made out of “technology enabling” supply chains which demonstrate the outcome of vertical research. It covers semiconductor components, embedded systems and integration aspects. This supply chain cluster includes the multicore domain controller and algorithms (SC4), high speed and wireless communication (SC5), embedded power modules (SC6) and MEMS sensors as Cyber-Physical Systems to enable autonomous driving (SC7). Results achieved by the technology enablers will be validated in the horizontal “output enabler” supply chains to build products. Output enabling supply chains include smart battery cells (SC1), highly integrated automotive powertrain (SC2) and smart semiconductors for fuel cells (SC3). Third, these innovative products will form the basis to generate “European Values” to deliver cost-efficient, high performance value electronics for long lifetime. 3Ccar includes three European Value generating supply chains, namely robustness and reliability (SC8), comfort and usability (SC9) and cost-effective technology (SC10).

c) Initiation of dissemination, liaison, exploitation and standardisation activities

Exploitation possibilities are for the integrators of the battery cell to use the IFRO pressure sensors in their architecture for the smart battery.

Project partners have been active in defining the exploitation strategies, dissemination activities, reporting of project‘s contribution towards international standards, and efficient inter-consortium information exchange. Special attention under this WP has been paid to ensure continuation and liaison with other related finalised and ongoing projects in the automotive, aeronautics, electromobile and autonomous driving sectors (E3Car, SilverStream, OSEM-EV, CASTOR, and MotorBrain).

In terms of dissemination of the project information, a user-friendly website has been created ( with comprehensive information about the project’s aims and the consortium. The website is regularly updated with the information of the events where the 3Ccar was presented. The website receives an average of 190 unique visitors weekly. A 3Ccar Twitter account has also been created, and is updated on a weekly basis with the most recent news, attracting 164 followers (2016 June figure).

Technical results achieved during period 1 are documented in deliverable reports. After formal acceptance the public deliverables will be disseminated via the 3Ccar project website:

Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far)

The projects’s innovations were structured following the six groups of objectives:

The first innovation is the competitive advantage through more complex semi-conductor based systems by domain and partitioning concepts. 3Ccar will provide significant level of innovation:
a) Computing power (More-Moore): 10 times higher computation power can be achieved by automotive qualification of 45 nm technologies – state-of-the-art automotive qualified technology is 65 nm; The vision is to achieve 100 times higher computational power for 22 nm technologies (automotive qualified of course).
b) Communication speed: 10x / 100x higher data rates may be achieved with smaller structures.
c) Embedded power electronics: Complexity will be reduced by integration of control and power functionalities; Cooling concepts will be simplified based on SiC or GaN power semiconductors.
d) Smart sense: Smart sensing Cyber-Physical Systems composed of sensor elements and com-munication link will be connected to the domain controller.

The second innovation is related with the cost reduction of the automotive components: the market price of the electrified car, the costs of the related components and subsystem and the resulting margin. 3Ccar aims to achieve the following innovations:
a) Convergence of systems: reduction of number of ECUs (typically 60-100) per car - to 5 do-main controllers having great level of similarity.
b) Smart functional integration: merging several subsystems by integrating functional compo-nents, e.g. controller, power electronic and motor into one unit).
c) Reduction and integration of complexity (More-Moore and More-than-Moore).

The third innovation concerns the management and control of complexity based on new architec-tures of domain controllers and partitioning. According to More-than-Moore, 3Ccar will reduce complexity of the overall system by means of integration (“complexity control”).

The fourth group is the reduction of maintenance cost and avoidance of car recall by software re-configuration. 3Ccar will provide radically new domain architectures for vehicles supporting the trend to integrate the functionalities of several today’s ECUs to few powerful multi-core domain controllers. This means a huge innovation potential offering new system partitioning, (remote) con-figurability and standardization (e.g. Autosar).

The fifth innovation is the growth of the semiconductor industry based on the mega trend of electri-fication. The growth of semiconductor market is strongly supported by the electrification trend, by new functionalities becoming mandatory by legislation, also by high demand of computational power for next generation ADAS systems, by cross domain use as well as by standardisation.

The sixth innovation is related to the reduction of the mobility’s footprint. 3Ccar aims at radical complexity reduction, and consider legislation and standardisation in a holistic way to achieve in-novative products (technology enabling, output enabling, and European Value generating products) for higher safety through more driver assistance and active safety systems, less congestion through semiconductors enabling autonomous driving, less noxious emission through higher electrification of powertrain and vehicle subsystems, higher efficiency of the powertrain, less material through higher level of functional integration.

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