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ALISE Report Summary

Project ID: 666157
Funded under: H2020-EU.

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - ALISE (Advanced Lithium Sulphur battery for xEV)

Reporting period: 2015-06-01 to 2016-05-31

Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project

ALISE is a pan European collaboration focused on the development and commercial scale-up of new materials and on the understanding of the electro-chemical processes involved in the lithium sulphur technology (Figure 1). It aims to create impact by developing innovative battery technology capable of fulfilling the expected market and characteristics from European Automotive Industry needs, European Materials Roadmap, Social factors from vehicle consumers and future competitiveness trends and positioning of European Companies. The project is focused to achieve 500 Wh/Kg stable LiS cell. The project involves dedicated durability, testing and LCA activities that will ensure the safety and adequate cyclability of the battery being developed and availability at competitive cost. Initial materials research will be scaled up during the project so that pilot scale quantities of the new materials will be introduced into the novel cell designs thus giving the following advancements over the current state of the art. The project approach will bring real breakthrough regarding new components, cell integration and associated architecture. New materials will be developed and optimized regarding anode, cathode, electrolyte and separator. Complete panels of specific tools and associated modelling will be developed from the unit cell to the battery pack. Activities are focused on the elaboration of new materials and processes at TRL4. Demonstration of the lithium sulphur technology will be up to battery pack levels with vehicle level validation. Validation of the prototype (17 kWh) with its corresponding driving range (100 km) will be done on circuit. ALISE is more than a linear bottom-up approach from materials to cell. ALISE shows strong resources to achieve a stable unit cell, with a supplementary top-down approach from the final application to the optimization of the unit cell.

Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far

ALISE achievements for the first 12 months project have been reported in this document. Technical, financial and other activities relating to dissemination and exploitation have been summarized. ALISE concept is sharing in two principal axes from the material to the unit cell and from the unit cell to its integration in a PHEV.
WP1 on specification has been closed after 3 months project, as planned, with associated D1.1 (Cell Requirement Document) and D1.2 (Report on specifications and definition of reference cell/parameters).
WP2, 3 and 4 are dedicated to the elaboration of new materials for their integration in LiS technology at the cell level (pouch and 18650 cylindrical). WP2, dedicated to the anode, shows early stage development (TRL3) relating to polymeric or ceramic coatings onto metallic lithium. Polymeric coating is presenting the most promising behaviour and then applied for the first pouch cells production. Additionally, lithium alternative as silicone has been studied and lead to challenging limitations regarding the specific capacity reachable. WP3 is summarizing the works done on the cathode during this first period where ALISE target planned at the laboratory scale have been already reached and maintained for 50 cycles with >80% of the initial specific capacity (S content >70wt%, specific capacity of 2.5mAh/g and 1200mAh/g of S, MS5 at month 10). Different roads have been explored from commercial carbon (CNT, graphene), carbon tailoring from electrospun nanofibers or sacrificial template, and/or physical (plasma) and chemical (diazonium) carbon functionalisation. After 12 months project, up scalable materials such as synthesized carbon (TUD/IWS) and commercial functionalized carbon (C-Tech) have shown promising results already tested in pouch cell format (OXIS). WP3 is dedicated to electrolyte and separator. Critical challenges for these components are linked to the adequate formulation for the electrolyte adapted to the superficies and electrochemistry of the other components of the cell. At the moment, reference electrolyte has been defined for polyolefin membrane separator and allowing an optimal utilization of the active material from the cathode and LiS reversibility associated. Studies are ongoing with ionic liquid and organic based electrolyte in order to overcome the actual limitation relating to the wettability of the surfaces, viscosity, and reversibility of the system. Complete details are available in corresponding interims reports from deliverable D2.1, D3.1 and D4.1.
WP5 and WP6 are dedicated to the cell integration and associated validation at the module and battery level up to the test in a real environment by replacing the actual lithium ion SEAT and PHEV battery pack to LiS technology. After 12 months project, only specific tasks on Cycle Life Assessment (WP6) and research activities onto the module construction have been realized. After 8 months, the first deliverable D6.3 has been submitted related to LCA and LCC study parameters agreed.

Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far)

Actual technical readiness level of ALISE LiS pouch cell is TRL3 because of its limiting component such as the lithium anode. Depending the research road and the components associated, ALISE project is taking into account a range of TRL between 2 to 6. Low TRL2-3 approaches are not limiting at the moment and may continuing to be explored insofar they look promising.
Up scalable solutions for the cathode have been already demonstrated after only 12 months project. Carbon/Sulphur composite is already reaching the ALISE a specific capacity of 1200mAh/g (S content >70wt%) at least needed to expect reaching the 400Wh/kg at the pouch cell level. The manufacturing process of the cathode is ensuring by roll to roll (TRL5, OXIS, TUD, IWS).
No major limitations (quantity, timing) have been detected for the production of electrolyte and membrane separator within the specific partner from ALISE (TRL6, SOLVIONIC and DARAMIC). Unfortunately, no clear improvement has been observed in respect to the actual state of the art with the new electrolytes generation tested at the scale of the laboratory (TRL4).
The positioning versus the current state of the art is describer per each strategy in Table 1.

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