Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS


WITDOM Report Summary

Project ID: 644371
Funded under: H2020-EU.2.1.1.

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - WITDOM (empoWering prIvacy and securiTy in non-trusteD envirOnMents)

Reporting period: 2015-01-01 to 2016-06-30

Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project

The advent of outsourced and distributed processing environments like cloud prompts fundamental transformations in whole ICT ecosystems, while bringing new opportunities to stakeholders in the availability and rational use of physical resources with large-scale savings in IT investments. Conversely, it also poses new security challenges especially for ensuring robust protection of privacy and integrity of personal information, which are a fundamental part of the societal acceptance of new ICT schemes, services and solutions.
In this context, the WITDOM project focuses on developing innovative solutions for truly efficient and practical privacy enhancing techniques and efficient signal and data processing in the encrypted domain for the increasingly demanded outsourced environments. Actually, the main target WITDOM pursues is to produce a framework for end-to-end protection of data in untrusted and fast evolving ICT-based environments, with a particular focus in data-outsourcing scenarios, where new threats, vulnerabilities and risks due to new uses require end-to-end security solutions that will withstand progress for the lifetime of applications they support.
This framework will be instantiated and validated in two realistic application scenarios:
• A health scenario (eHealth) based on genetic data sharing for large research data analyses and individual outsourced clinical analyses;
• A financial services scenario (FS) based on the management of both customers’ data and finance data of contracts as well as providing outsourced secure financial services over private and public Cloud instances.
This framework shall use security-and-privacy-by-design (SPbD) methodologies, and advance the state of the art (SoTA) in effective protection of personal & sensitive data in the following areas:
• Privacy enhancing techniques, perturbation mechanisms and privacy metrics
• Cryptographic privacy techniques supporting encrypted processing
• Cryptographic techniques for integrity and verifiability of outsourced processes
• European legal landscape.
The WITDOM project is a Research and Innovation Action funded by the European Commision's Horizon 2020 programme and the Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation. This project, started in January 2015, joins together a multidisciplinary consortium comprising Universities, research centres, strong industrial stakeholders, and end-users: Atos(Spain) as the project coordinator, the University of Vigo (Spain) as the technical coordinator, Katholieke Universiteit of Leuven (Belgium), IBM Research (Switzerland), Fondazione Centro San Raffaele (Italy), BBVA (Spain), Gradiant (Spain), and the Ospedale San Raffaele (Italy).

Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far

"The period covered by this management report lasts from the project start on January 1st of 2015 to June 30th 2016, which spans from M01-M18 according to the project plan. This corresponds to the first reporting period of the project.
During the considered period, the activities performed can be structured along the following lines of work:
• Launching the project and setting up the different procedures (quality, reporting, risk management, document/output storage and management, deliverable quality review, etc.), management structure, guidelines and collaborative tools to enable a seamless and fruitful teamwork among the consortium partners, in order to achieve the project objectives and develop the work promised in the Description of Action according to the schedule. This has been described in the confidential deliverables D1.1 - "WITDOM Internal website", released in January 2015 (M01), D1.2 - "WITDOM Internal Website and Communication Infrastructure", released in March 2015 (M3), D1.3 - "Quality Plan", released in M3, and D1.4 - "First Work Plan", released in M01. Updates for the second year, D1.5 - "Second Quality Plan" and D1.6 - "Second Work plan". were released in December 2015 (M12).
• Clear understanding and characterization of the two project scenarios, eHealth and Financial Services, as well as of the functionalities to be implemented and supported by the systems that will be deployed within WITDOM. The deliverable D2.1 – “Requirements analysis for un-trusted environments”, released in June 2015 (M6), includes the description of a methodology called SPACE (Security and PrivAcy CodEsign) used for eliciting privacy and security requirements, an analysis of the two application scenarios in which the WITDOM platform will be instantiated in future stages of the project, a thorough review of the applicable security and privacy standards, a study of the scenario-specific cloud computing needs and a schematic list of the security and privacy high-level requirements for the application scenarios.
D2.2 –“Functional analysis and use case identification”, released in December 2015 (M12), states clearly which tasks have to be outsourced to untrusted domains, and the details of the kind of data involved. It will be exploited for the identification of suitable technological solutions for a secure and privacy-preserving outsourcing of the selected tasks.
• Analysis of the application of the European legal framework on privacy enhancing technologies, in particular the data protection and cybersecurity package. The deliverable D6.1 – “Legal and Ethical framework and privacy and security principles”, released in June 2015 (M6), focuses on the extent to which data protection and cybersecurity legislation applies to the manipulation of (encrypted) personal data in untrusted environments such as the cloud, and the interaction between the basic stakeholders (data controller/processor/subject) in the context of processing personal data in these new environments.
This deliverable also assesses ethical guidelines to support stakeholders in the advancement of central human values such as freedom, security and justice. The interaction between law, which provides formal regulatory settings, and ethical guidelines, which provide normative recourses for the interpretation of the law, is an important consideration.
The definition of the specific legal privacy and security requirements that need to be taken into account for the development of the eHealth and Financial Services scenarios was also started during the considered period. D6.2 – “Legal requirements on privacy, data protection and security in WITDOM scenarios” is under production and will be released in February 2016 (M14).
• Discussions on the formal technological security, privacy and verifiability requirements of WITDOM platform and scenarios, taking into account the connection with user-centric requirements and European privacy and data protection legislation. These discussions are presented in the deliverable D3.1 – “WITDOM formalized technological requirements”, released in December (M12). The requirements for the WITDOM platform and project scenarios are classified into three categories (core research requirements, demo requirements and production requirements), according to the advance in SoTA that they convey in WITDOM.
Furthermore, the presented trust models analyzed for these scenarios identify the trusted and untrusted parties based on the definition of actors and their feared events, and determine which particular data has to be protected and from whom. The main untrusted element for these models is the Infrastructure Provider, from which WITDOM protects all the outsourced data. Additionally, the limitations for currently existing deployments are identified, identifying the most promising research approaches followed in WITDOM for addressing verifiability, security and privacy protection of outsourced process in outsourced environments.
Finally the document presents a selection of privacy metrics that will be later on aligned to the requirements and embedded into the final privacy framework and assessment methodology. These metrics comprise information-theoretic metrics, distortion-based metrics, anonymity sets, and differential privacy, together with some scenario-specific metrics.
• Analysis of the state-of-the art in homomorphic encryption, secure processing, privacy enhancing techniques and integrity and consistency mechanisms. D3.3 – “WITDOM Intermediate internal cryptographic toolset”, released in December 2015 (M12), highlights the research challenges posed in WITDOM for these research areas and the main strategies to achieve the targets of secure and privacy-preserving processing of sensitive data in outsourced untrusted environments.
• Outline a first draft of the architectural model for the WITDOM framework for processing data in untrusted environments (i.e: cloud), released in December 2015 (M12) in the deliverable D4.1 – “Preliminary specification of an end-to-end secure architecture”. The architecture uses the paradigm of service orientation (and represents a service-oriented architecture, SOA), isolating the applications from the particular implementations and locations of its elements. The architecture organizes multiple components together in a comprehensive framework, providing the following protection functions:
­ Anonymization;
­ Secure signal processing;
­ Secure computation;
­ Integrity and consistency verification;
­ Data masking and desensitisation;
­ End-to-end encryption.
The consortium is currently working in an updated version of the architecture to be released in August 2015, while preliminary implementations of core and protection components, which will deliver the innovative part of the project, and their integration have already started.
• Details a validation process of WITDOM solutions and provide guidelines for the assessment at the primitive level (continuous validation process) and at the system level (final validation of the project outcomes). This is described in the deliverable D2.3 – “Intermediate assessment of privacy framework and tools”, released in April 2016 (M16) which also includes a list of the relevant Key Performance Indicators for WITDOM technologies, exemplifying them in the two project scenarios.
• Define a common project strategy for dissemination and communication of project advances and results, to set the base-line for individual partner’s activities, in order to reach the maximum impact possible. The strategy is accompanied with a plan that establishes a series of activities to promote the project along its entire duration, as well as a complete set of graphical material that supports these activities. The graphical material entails:
­ The project branding, including a logo, colour code, templates for documents, two posters and two versions of a promotional brochure.
­ A project website ( publicly accessible online since February 2015 (M2), as the main point of contact from externals and first means for dissemination and communication of project advances and regular achievements. The website constitutes a deliverable and is described in the accompanying document D7.1 – “Public Web Presence”.
­ Social media: dedicated LinkedIn group, twitter and SlideShare account.
­ Press releases and marketing campaigns, to promote the project official start, the project results and events.
The communication and dissemination activities are grouped into four phases (Awareness, Understanding, Adoption and post-project), each one focusing on the promotion of certain aspects of the project, with customized key messages, and targeting different type of audience making use of the most appropriate channel in each case. The dissemination and communication strategy and the associated implementation plans have been defined in the deliverable documents D7.2 – “Dissemination plan”, released in June 2015 (M6). The enforcement of these plans are reported in the deliverables D7.3 – “First dissemination Report& Material” and D7.12 – “First communication Activities Report” respectively, both released by December 2015 (M12).
The communication and dissemination activities include the participation in several conferences, workshops and events, as well as the production and publication of several papers. Among other events it is worth mentioning the networking session on October 22nd at the ICT 2015 Innovate, Connect, Transform event (Lisbon, Portugal), co-organised by WITDOM in cooperation with the related H2020 projects TREDISEC and PRISMACLOUD, and where WITDOM introduced privacy challenges in the cloud and how to overcome them. Another relevant event was the participation in and sponsorship of the 4th ACM Information Hiding and Multimedia Security (IH&MMSEC 2016) on June 20th-22nd 2016. The project is also organizing a workshop on Secure and Efficient Outsourcing of Storage and Computation of Data in the Cloud at the 10th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES 2016) on August 31st 2016.
• Set-up an external Project Advisory Board expected to provide WITDOM with expert advice in key relevant areas from the project such as the legal aspects and the under development research lines. D7.5 – “Report of first Advisory Board Workshop”, released in M12, summarizes the initial feedback provided by this group.
• Set-up an external Special Industrial Monitoring group to link to industry experts that can provide additional feedback to the project.
• Take the initial standardization steps, reported in the deliverable D7.8 – “Preliminary standardisation Reports”. The most significant achievement was the liaison with the ISO SC27 with working groups WG2 (ISO/IEC 18033-6 Homomorphic encryption, ISO/IEC 19592 Secret sharing) and WG5 (ISO/IEC 27017 Code of practice for information security controls based on ISO/IEC 27002 for cloud services, ISO/IEC 29134 Privacy Impact Assessment, ISO/IEC 29151 Code of Practice for PII protection).
• Define the initial exploitation strategy, described in the deliverable D7.10 – “Initial Exploitation Plan”, which describes the problem statement, identifies the exploitable outcomes of WITDOM, provides a preliminary market analysis and proposes a strategy for partners for the project lifetime, both commercial and non-commercial."

Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far)

The innovations sought in this area are three-fold: the first dimension focuses on a novel framework for a quantitative evaluation of end-to-end security and privacy, aiming at guaranteeing efficient and verifiable provision of privacy in the context of ICT services owned by third-party providers of distributed processing and storage, thereby maximizing independence from stated security and privacy commitments by respective providers, and minimizing the current need of blind trust from the clients, solely based on written consents. The initial contribution of this framework builds upon a requirements elicitation methodology, synergizing the results of the recently ended FP7 project PRIPARE with a co-design process to fuse privacy into the first stages of the systems design process, materializing a true Privacy-by-Design methodology, which has been consistently updated and refined during the first half of the second year of the project.
The second dimension of innovations deals with the actual design and development of tools and technologies for efficient privacy protection of data outsourced and processed in untrusted environments. These techniques can be categorized in the four main research areas addressed in WITDOM: efficient lattice cryptosystems for homomorphic processing, allowing for faster and more resource-efficient encrypted-domain processing; accurate and effective secure signal processing to cope with the marriage between cryptography and the ubiquitous signal processing operations when dealing with sensitive signals; efficient Privacy-Enhancing Technologies for obfuscation, noise addition, anonymization and data masking, measuring and achieving quantitative guarantees for unidentifiability of the processed data and unlinkability of the produced results; and last, but not least, efficient and scalable integrity and consistency verification techniques to preserve fork-linearizability on data accessed and modified by several users on outsourced data stores. The main strength resides in that the innovations in these areas are not applied independently or autonomously, but adequately and effectively composed and in an end-to-end secure and private architecture that defines a platform able to deploy privacy-preserving services on outsourced data with quantifiable and assessable technological guarantees. Promising initial results have already been produced within WITDOM’s roadmap during the first year, which have advanced the state of the art during the initial half of the second year in providing efficient and practical solutions for privacy-aware scenarios in outsourced untrusted environments. Specific Key Performance Indicators have been proposed for assessing the expected and actual behavior and performance of the developed primitives, whose validation is covered by the assessment methodology described in the project. WITDOM has also provided a generic architecture which gives coverage to developments on top of WITDOM’s framework by reusing the protection components developed within WITDOM and applicable for any kind of outsourced untrusted environment. This architecture is being refined and specifically adapted to Cloud environments during the second year.
Finally, the third dimension of WITDOM’s innovations deals with the instantiation of the developed framework, platform and tools in two carefully chosen use-case scenarios, whose impact and sensitivity of the involved data make privacy a must, and where privacy and confidentiality constraints are a true barrier for profiting from the benefits of outsourced architectures and Cloud-based deployments. The first use-case scenario is a health scenario based on outsourcing genetic data processes and workflows for large research analyses and individual clinical analyses; genetic data is extremely sensitive, and genomic privacy has become a hot topic for research and innovation, to which WITDOM contributes by focusing on solutions for outsourced processing of genetic data in two specific use cases dealing with secure sequence alignment and secure annotation, also providing end-users with secure outsourced backup functionalities with integrity and consistency guarantees. The second scenario deals with outsourced financial analyses based on the management of both customers’ data and finance data, to enable risk calculations, fraud detection and forecasting operations deployed as outsourced secure financial services over private and public Cloud instances.
Moreover, research and Innovation in this field cannot ignore the fundamental impact of the data protection regulations and directives on the evolution of Cloud-related environments and in the processing of personal and sensitive data. Therefore, a key aspect of WITDOM innovations is built upon a legal assessment and validation of the recently reformed (May 2016) European Data Protection Regulation, linking legal and ethical requirements with technological means to guarantee their enforcement.

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