Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS


BRIDGE Report Summary

Project ID: 211345
Funded under: FP7-ENVIRONMENT
Country: Greece

Final Report Summary - BRIDGE (sustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism)

Executive Summary:
Urban metabolism considers a city as a system and distinguishes between energy and material flows. "Metabolic" studies are usually top-down approaches that assess the inputs and outputs of food, water, energy, etc. from a city, or that compare the metabolic process of several cities. In contrast, bottom-up approaches are based on quantitative estimates of urban metabolism components at local scale, considering the urban metabolism as the 3D exchange and transformation of energy and matter between a city and its environment. Recent advances in bio-physical sciences have led to new methods to estimate energy, water, carbon and pollutants fluxes, but the knowledge exchange between end-users, such as planners, architects and engineers and biophysical scientists is still poor.

BRIDGE is a joint effort of 14 Organizations from 11 EU countries aimed at illustrating the advantages of considering environmental issues in urban planning. BRIDGE did not perform a complete life cycle analysis or whole system urban metabolism, but rather focused on specific metabolism components: energy, water, carbon and pollutants. BRIDGE integrated the development of numerical tools and methodologies for the analysis of fluxes between a city and its environment with its validation and application in terms of future development alternatives, based on environmental and socio-economic indicators for baseline and extreme situations. Helsinki, Athens, London, Firenze and Gliwice have been selected as case study cities.

A Decision Support System (DSS) combining integrating the bio-physical observations with socio-economic issues was developed to allow end-users to evaluate several urban planning alternatives based on their initial identification of planning objectives. In this way, sustainable planning strategies can be analysed based on quantitative assessments of energy, water, carbon and pollutants fluxes. The project uses a Community of Practice approach, which means that local decision-makers were involved in the project from the beginning, exchanging knowledge and experience with scientist. CoPs were developed in all five BRIDGE case aiming at continuing the interaction and communication after the end of the project.

The methodology adopted in BRIDGE and incorporated in the DSS is based on sustainability objectives defined for components of urban metabolism (environmental, social and economic). A set of criteria associated to the objectives and indicators were used to demonstrate the level of achievement of each criterion, in a quantified manner. Indicator values are either calculated by numerical modelling or are given as data attached to planning alternatives, in the case of socio-economic indicators. The BRIDGE DSS evaluates how planning alternatives can modify the physical flows of the above urban metabolism components, using a Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE).

Different types of models from mesoscale air quality models to urban canopy models were used in BRIDGE, adapting a cascade modelling technique from large to local scale. This approach allowed estimating energy, water and carbon and pollutant fluxes associated to varying geographical extents of urban development scenarios. State of the art meteorological and chemical models were adapted using urban and canopy parameterization. Several local scale models were implemented for different purposes (computational fluid dynamics models, traffic models, turbulence schemes models).

A Foresight Exercise was also performed during BRIDGE involving end-users from BRIDGE Case Studies and experts from the academic and private sectors to analyse how decision-making priorities change in response to different future strategic scenarios. The Foresight Exercise focused on macro dimensions, such as climate change, energy supply and economic performance and different possible futures were discussed. Based on the outcomes of Foresight Exercise, analysis of planning alternatives considering strategic scenarios was
Project Context and Objectives:
This section describes the project context and objectives. BRIDGE aimed at incorporating sustainability aspects in urban planning processes, accounting for some well recognized relations between urban metabolism and urban structure. More specifically the objectives of BRIDGE were:

- Bridge the gap between bio-physical sciences and urban planners.

- Illustrate the economic advantages of accounting for environmental issues on a routine basis in urban planning decisions.

- Provide the means to quantitatively estimate the various components of the urban metabolism from local to regional scales.

- Provide the means to quantitatively estimate the environmental impacts of the above components.

- Provide the means to translate the above impacts to socio-economic costs.

- Support the development of sustainable planning strategies to decouple resource use and economic development.

- Provide the means to optimize resources in urban planning.

- Involve local and regional stakeholders in validation of project's achievements.

- Support the implementation of EU policy on urban environment.

In short, BRIDGE aimed at providing the means to close the gap between bio-physical sciences and urban planners and to illustrate the advantages of accounting for urban metabolism issues on a routine basis in design decisions. The "urban metabolism'' was considered as the exchange and transformation of energy and matter between a city and its environment. The city was considered as a system and the physical flows between this system and its environment were quantitatively estimated in the framework of the project. BRIDGE focused on the following components of urban metabolism: energy, water, carbon and pollutants.

The challenges of the sustainable urban planning with regards to the above components are the following:

Energy: optimize energy efficiency of the urban structure; minimize energy demand of building groups; maximize efficient use of energy through building services and energy supply; maximize share of renewable energy sources; maximize the use of eco-friendly and healthy building materials.

Water: minimize primary water consumption; minimize impairment of the natural water cycle.

Carbon and pollutants: minimize the emissions to the atmosphere; maximize pollutants sinks.

BRIDGE aimed at exploiting the advances in bio-physical sciences to develop a Decision Support System (DSS) to support the decision making needed to achieve the above challenges by proposing quantitative measures and guidelines for sustainable use of energy and materials in urban planning. BRIDGE DSS aimed at reflecting the multidimensional nature of the urban metabolism, as operationalised in intelligible and transferable indicators easily understood by a non-scientific public. The development of the DSS was structured in a way to include an analytical and a design component linking the bio-physical processes in urban environment with socio-economic parameters in order to estimate the environmental impacts and the socio-economic costs of urban metabolism components.

The impacts of urban metabolism were assessed by quantitative methods, estimating the relevant physical flows (energy, water, carbon and pollutants). State-of the art observation methodologies and models were used to identify the spatio-temporal distribution of each flow and to assess its behavior in the urban fabric. State-of the art impact assessment methodologies and indicators were used to assess the environmental and socio-economic impacts of these flows addressing the economic, institutional and regulatory factors.

Five European cities were selected as BRIDGE case studies: a high latitude city with rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating (Helsinki, Finland); a low latitude Mediterranean city that requires a substantial amount of energy for cooling (Athens, Greece); a representative European megacity (London, United Kingdom); a representative European old city with substantial cultural heritage (Firenze, Italy) and a representative Eastern European city with dynamic planning process reflecting the economic, social, and political changes held within last two decades (Gliwice, Poland).

In order to develop a method to be welcomed by local stakeholders, it was important to involve them in the project from the beginning. The project used a Community of Practice (CoP) approach, which means that in the case studies, local stakeholders and scientists of the BRIDGE project had to meet on a regular basis in order to learn from each other. The CoP aimed at making clear what aspects are important for the future users of the BRIDGE products. CoPs also aimed as a network of contacts for collecting datasets for the case studies (land use, infrastructure networks, socio-economic data, etc.). An Umbrella CoP across the participating cities was also in the scope of BRIDGE in order for the participants to exchange ideas and experience of BRIDGE on a European level. The DSS was validated by end users in BRIDGE case studies, who provided their requirements during its design phase.

The work to be carried in BRIDGE has been broken down into 9 Work Packages (WPs) following the logical phases of the implementation of the project:

WP1: Project Management.

WP2: Methodology Specification. It aimed at ensuring that new research and policy tools developed build on current knowledge and make best use of the available resources from a scientific and policy perspective.

WP3: Data Collection and Analysis. It represents a unique attempt to collect and to analyze an integrated database suitable for the development and validation of models and methodologies for the analysis of fluxes between the city and its environment.

WP4: Physical Flows Modeling. It aimed at providing the required modeling of physical flows.

WP5: Environmental and Socio-economic Impact Assessment Methods. It aimed at developing an integrated set of indicators to quantify the socio-economic and environmental impacts of urban metabolism and also to provide the tools that enable planner to review the potential environmental impacts of spatial planning and to explore alternatives.

WP6: DSS Development. It aimed at integrating inputs from WPs 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 to develop a DSS, which are to be used to support the decision making by proposing quantitative measures and guidelines for sustainable use of energy and materials in urban planning. WP7: DSS Application. It aimed at covering an application of the DSS for the case studies and several scenarios, providing information for coherent decision making process and developing guidelines for sustainable planning strategies.

WP8: Demonstration. It includes two events to demonstrate the First DSS Prototype and the Final DSS Prototype.

WP9: Dissemination - Exploitation. It covers activities related to dissemination and exploitation, such as the establishment of a network community, the provision of publishable deliverables and the setting up of workshops, etc.

WPs 1 and 9 (Management and Dissemination - Exploitation) were horizontal WPs and the other seven were thematic. WP1 interacts with all the other WPs since it coordinates and monitors project implementation. WP2 to WP8 provide information to WP9. This information is related to the progress and achievements of the project to effectively disseminate and support exploitation of the BRIDGE methodology and the DSS. The framework of CoP's was planned to run across the WPs. CoPs were meant to be established for each city in the framework of WP2, carry on through WP5 and WP7 and finally integrate the experience between cities in WP8 through the Umbrella CoP. WP2 specifies all the scientific and technical issues and therefore provides guidelines to WPs 3 to 7. Observations related to physical flows are responsibility of WP3. WP3 datasets were collected to be used for model calibration and validation (WP4). Modeling results were also integrated in the DSS, however some type of models were also integrated for on-line use. In WP5 the environmental and socio-economic impact assessment methods and indicators were derived using inputs from WPs 2 and 3. WPs 2 to 8 provided inputs to WP6, to be used for the DSS development. WP7 provided the strategic scenarios required for the DSS implementation, along with the assessment and validation of the system for BRIDGE case studies. These tasks are included in WP7. Selected applications were used in WP8 for the DSS demonstration.

More specifically WP1 includes the coordination of the project and the responsibility for ensuring that the correct procedures were applied and deadlines and obligations were met. Appropriate management processes were foreseen according to the ISO 10006 project management standard. The first 3 months were strategic for implementing the whole project management structure. The project coordinator along with the assistance of the WP leaders (Management Boards) leaded WP1. Outputs of this WP were the different project management reports, progress and activity reports, funding and efforts consumption reports, documents for the project reviews, and other project fact sheet as required in FP7 projects.

The objective of WP2 was to identify current understanding, users' needs, and the presence/absence of policy of urban metabolism and resource optimization in the urban fabric with the assistant of CoPs. One of the main deliverables is a summary of current knowledge and needs. Existing data sets and models were identified (within and beyond Europe). Processes were studied end-to-end in a number of environments (the case studies) influenced by different policy and resource availability.

The objective of WP3 was to provide valuable datasets to describe over time the different physical flows characterizing urban metabolism of BRIDGE case studies, which have been selected along northern south and east west transects - influenced by different policy and resource availability. Socio-economic data for all case studies were also foreseen to be collected. WP3 deliverables are a constituted by a series of datasets to be used for the development and validation of simulation models, of environmental and socio-economic impact analysis methods and of the BRIDGE DSS. These data also assist for comparative studies between different cities.

The objective of WP4 was to choose the numerical models that are suitable for BRIDGE, run then for the BRIDGE case studies and validate their results. Datasets collected in WP3 were foreseen to be utilized by the selected modeling tools following the methodology and specification stated in WP2. Relations, parameterizations and numerical tools were used for assimilating the data and produce an energy and matter flow exchange. The results are collected and integrated into a database included in the DSS (WP6).

The main objective of WP5 was to identify the main driving forces and pressures of the urban environment on environmental and socio-economic systems and the development of environmental, socio-economic and sustainability indicators for a range or European scenarios through the use of a range of tools including, SEA, SIA and SA to quantify urban metabolism and resource optimization in the urban fabric.

WP6 aimed at developing a GIS-based DSS able to integrate the data, the models and/or models results and the impact assessment methodologies needed to estimate the environmental and socio-economic impacts of urban metabolism. It serves as a tool for assisting decisions regarding a more sustainable use of energy and material in urban planning. It also permits the definition of scenarios for the evolution of the land use in BRIDGE case studies.

Validation of methods, models and data developed and acquired in previous WPs through the application to the BRIDGE case studies, was one of the objectives of WP7. The evaluation of the performance of the DSS and the architecture integration was foreseen in the framework of WP7. Another objective of this WP was the development and evaluation of strategic scenarios based on different sustainability indicators, as well as the development of guidelines for sustainable urban planning strategies.

Demonstration of the applicability, usefulness and potential impact of the BRIDGE DSS prototype including a feedback by the end-users, was foreseen in the framework of WP8.

Finally, the main objective of WP9 was to ensure effective dissemination of BRIDGE results in order to efficiently use and share technical information among end users. All the dissemination activities should aim at different levels of research communities, but also at regional, national and European levels. In addition, WP9 aimed at ensuring high level outreach within the global scientific community of the achievements of the project, including the lessons learned, and maintain strong collaborative arrangements between all the project beneficiaries of the participating countries. Finally, among the objectives of WP9 was the preparation of an exploitation plan with the cooperation of all beneficiaries that defines the promotion and exploitation strategy for the utilization of project results.

Project Results:
The main S&T results of BRIDGE Project are described in the following section. The section is organized per Work Package (WP).

WP2: Methodology Specification

Concerning WP2, work on the documentation of current understanding and modelling capability for energy, water and carbon flows in urban environments leaded by KCL (King's College London), UBAS (University of Basel) and CMCC (Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici S.c.a.r.l.) respectively, has been carried out successfully and is described in the respective project deliverable (Deliverable D.2.1). The documentation of the needs of the users and the demands of the planning community in the context of sustainable design leaded by NKUA (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens) has also been carried out and is described in the respective project deliverable (Deliverable D.2.2.). Finally, the framework of the method to involve stakeholders in the process of development of the BRIDGE DSS was set and described by ALTERRA (DLO/ALTERRA) in the respective deliverable (Deliverable D.2.3).

Significant Achievements of WP2 are Deliverables D.2.1, D.2.2 and D.2.3 that were submitted on time.

WP3: Data collection and analysis

WP3 refers to the data collection and analysis. A list of all possible measurements was prepared in the beginning of the project and the case study leaders (University of Helsinki - UHEL, NKUA, KCL, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - CNR and Instytut Ekologii Terenów Uprzemys?owionych - IETU) provided information on feasible measurements in their case studies. FORTH contributed to the list of measurements by providing a set of remote sensing related activities. CMCC integrated data categories referring to socio-economic criteria.

In-situ measurements related to meteorology, fluxes of energy, CO2, aerosol particle number and concentrations of various trace gases and particles were carried out during the whole project in Athens, Helsinki, Firenze and London. In those case studies the measurements towers were already installed. A measurements tower was installed in Gliwice by UBAS, in the framework of BRIDGE.

GIS data (Land Use/Cover, Road Networks - Buildings, Topography (DTM), Population - census block, administrative units, etc.) were provided by the case study leaders. FORTH provided satellite data products for all case studies: High-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM) have been created, using ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) stereo imagery for the five case studies (Helsinki, Athens, London, Firenze, Gliwice). Spatial distributions of surface emissivity and of surface albedo were calculated using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) for the five case studies (Helsinki, Athens, London, Firenze, Gliwice). The University of Southampton (SOTON) measured particulate pollution (PM10) uptake by trees at the London case study for validation of the UFORE model of particulate matter deposition, and used this model to examine the planning alternatives in London (added new street trees) and Firenze (the Parco San Donato development).

The data collection of BRIDGE is described in detail in the respective deliverables (Deliverables D.3.1.3, D.3.2.3 and D.3.3.3 - which are the final versions of Deliverables series D.3.i.x).

Significant Achievements of WP3 are stated below:

- In-situ measurements were undergoing regularly during the whole period of the project in the case studies where towers were already installed.

- A measurements tower was installed in the framework of the project in Gliwice and a series of measurements were taken after the tower installation and for the rest period of the project.

- GIS data and socio-economic data have been collected from all case studies.

- Satellite derived DEMs, emissivities and albedo maps were created for the needs of the project.

- Description and data outlining the possible planning interventions in all the case studies were collected, with the help of the local authorities.

- All datasets were passed to WP4 for use with the numerical models.

- All datasets as well as available GIS data were passed to WP6 to be included in the BRIDGE DSS.

WP4: Physical Flows Modeling

Concerning WP4, since the beginning of the project Internet meetings were carried out in order to discuss all the available models' details and decide which are suitable to implement in the BRIDGE DSS. Critical issues concerning the model features (scale, input, output, etc), the amount and format of data from WP3 were taken into account.

The models that are used in BRIDGE DSS, was decided to be marked out as "on-line" and "off-line". The models called "off-line" are those that due to their size and high computational demands are required to run in clusters or supercomputers. Due to the long duration of the simulations the "off-line" models were run "in-house" and were the simulation results were implemented into the BRIDGE DSS. The "on-line" models are those models which due to the simplicity and limited computational demands were suitable to be integrated in the BRIDGE DSS.

Model Selection Report (Deliverable D.4.1) describes in detail the models that were selected to run during the BRIDGE project and to be integrated in the BRIDGE DSS. This deliverable contains details about the characteristics and functionalities, the required input data and the kind of results and output data of the BRIDGE models.

Several advances took place during the period of the project concerning environmental modeling. UPM (Technical University of Madrid) has improved the WRF-UCM model with and without the use of chemical elaboration to be used in BRIDGE. These activities are mainly focused on the deposition module which includes several different approaches of the canopy resistance. Several tests with different deposition model approaches have been carried out and differences have been studied.

KCL has updated developing anthropogenic heat inventory. A version of LUCY model that can be used for an individual city (LUCYcity) has been developed by KCL. Existing LUMPS model was also improved by KCL to include a water component, available as SUEWS.

UAVR (University of Aveiro) has developed in the framework of BRIDGE a new integrated urban air quality modeling system, URBAIR. In the core of this numerical tool is an advanced Gaussian model, which has been enhanced with a number of functionalities, in particular the treatment of the road traffic emissions. The model provides air quality patterns for a given spatial domain and time period for different air pollutants. The URBAIR system integrates a set of modules for the pre-processing of data related with urban geometry (GIS based), meteorological conditions and air pollutants emissions, which are coupled with the Gaussian dispersion module. The UAVR team also applied the CAMx air quality model, driven by WRF outputs. The datasets produced by CAMx include hourly gridded concentrations for O3, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 for the reference situation of Helsinki, Gliwice and London case-studies, with 200 m x 200 m spatial resolution, for the entire year of 2008.

SURFEX model by CNRM (Météo France CNRM ) and SIMGRO model by ALTERRA were also included. The ACASA model (CMCC) in the framework of BRIDGE has also be coupled with the newest version of mesoscale model WRF (the Weather Research & Forecasting Model) developed by the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The WRF/ACASA coupling is able to identify how multiple environmental factors, in particularly climate variability, population density, and species distribution, impact future carbon cycle prediction across a wide geographical range. ACASA model was improved by CMCC with physics related to urban environment: the radiation scheme for urban canyons was added and the soil model was modified as a conduction model for stems and concrete/buildings. The final improvement of ACASA concerns internal consistency in calculating turbulent fluxes. Anthropogenic contributions to energy and mass flux calculations have been added.

Model Implementation Report (Deliverable D.4.2) describes how the selected models were implemented, including input data pre-processing and model configurations. Simulations were validated against the in-situ measurement taken by WP3. QA-QC Report (Deliverable D.4.3) describes the quality assurance and quality control procedure which was followed to guarantee the quality of the whole modeling process. The limitations and the uncertainty of the modeling results are also explained in this report.

Significant Achievements of WP4 are stated below:

- The physical flows models to be used in BRIDGE were identified and their details and requirements described in the Model Selection Report (Deliverable D.4.1)

- Selected "off-line" models were run and simulation results were passed to WP6

- Selected "on-line" models were tested to run on one of the BRIDGE case studies each and were passed to WP6

- How the selected models were implemented, including input data pre-processing and model configurations is described in the Model Implementation Report (Deliverable D.4.2)

- Quality assurance and quality control procedure were followed to guarantee the quality of the whole modeling process and is described in the QA-QC Report (Deliverable D.4.3)

WP5: Environmental and socio-economic impact assessment

WP5 assessed the driving forces and pressures on environmental and socio-economic systems in urban environments and performed identification of sustainability objectives, criteria and indicators. Two rounds of CoP meetings were held in the framework of WP5 (two meeting in each of the five case studies). The meeting were used for the choice and definition of indicators for the case studies, functioning as indicator workshops. According to this decision, the total number of CoP meeting had to be changed, holding ten CoP meetings and one Umbrella CoP meeting - the Umbrella CoP was held in the framework of WP8 and it was attended by end-users from all of the five case studies. CoP meetings have incorporated WP5 framework requirements as part of the 1st and 2nd socio-economic and environmental workshop. A session in every CoP meeting has been dedicated to the identification of planning priorities, challenges, and sustainability objectives and indicators. TCD (Trinity College Dublin), CMCC and UAVR have contributed to the preparation of the relevant CoP reports, where a summary of the outcomes in relation to sustainability objectives and preliminary indicators has been included. The 1st and 2nd round of CoP meetings were prepared by ALTERRA in collaboration with TCD, UAVR, CMCC, FORTH and the case study leaders. Reports of all CoP meetings are available.

During the 1st round of CoP meetings, BRIDGE members and urban planners had the opportunity to get to know each other and to identify key issues of sustainable development. The specific case study areas were defined and the corresponding planning priorities, sustainability objectives and indicators (to assess progress towards sustainable development) were identified. Air quality and traffic were identified as common problems in all case studies. Water, heat island effect, green spaces and energy use, entailed different aspects in each city.

During the 2nd round of CoP meetings, planning objectives, criteria and indicators sets, including socio-economic criteria, have been finalized for each of these case studies. The definition of objectives and criteria has been achieved by applying a participatory approach involving local stakeholders. In order to interlink the outputs from the local case studies with the BRIDGE DSS, TCD, CMCC and UAVR have defined a methodological framework for the assessment of planning alternatives to be applied in the DSS. The framework consist of a series of procedures and techniques for weighting (i.e. prioritizing) indicators according to their performance with respect to the priorities and planning objectives defined in the local case study and for scoring them according to their respective performance. Revised objectives and indicators for Firenze, Helsinki, Gliwice, Athens and London are a corollary of these meetings. CMCC has collaborated with TCD on the proposal for a final set of indicators, which has been discussed during the Umbrella CoP meeting. The Umbrella CoP meeting took place in Athens in May 5, 2010 and local stakeholders from all case studies participated in this meeting. TCD revised the indicators and defined a final set of core indicators to be incorporated into the BRIDGE DSS. FORTH, UPM and UAVR also contributed in the development of this set of indicators.

Significant Achievements of WP5 are stated below:

- The 1st and 2nd Round of CoP Meetings (1st and 2nd Socio-economic and environmental workshop) have been held in all case study cities and reports of all CoP meeting have be written.

- A set of potential objectives and indicators to be used to the BRIDGE DSS was established through CoPs and it was further discussed inside the consortium to decide about the final set to be used in the BRIDGE DSS.

- Socio-economic - environmental workshops report (Deliverable D.5.1) establishes a methodology which leads to the identification of potential indicators.

- The definition of decision methodology to be implemented in the BRIDGE DSS in the framework of BRIDGE involving other WPs (6, 7).

- A set of indicators of environmental, socio-economic and sustainability impacts and how these indicators were tested and validated in case studies, as well as how they will be integrated in the DSS is described in the indicators definition report (Deliverable D.5.3).

- The 1st Demonstration Event - Umbrella CoP 1 was organized earlier than expected in order to facilitate end-users interaction and save resources as it was organized along with the joint (WP4-WP5-WP6 workshop)

- The joint WP4-WP5-WP6 workshop was organized to facilitate the information flow between those WPs and to make the necessary interactions to establish the connection scheme to be used in the BRIDGE DSS (WP6) between the environmental models simulation results (WP4) and the set of indicators (WP5).

WP6: DSS Development

A first mock-up of the BRIDGE DSS was presented in the 1st Progress Meeting. This mock-up version was used as a precursor for the BRIDGE DSS Prototype to de developed. The BRIDGE DSS specification was thoroughly discussed in the 1st Progress Meeting and various other WPs technical meetings. The technologies that will be adopted taking into account the above specifications were selected and the specifications of the numerical models to be integrated (WP4) into the DSS as well.

All the above led to the conceptual design of the BRIDGE DSS, taking also into account the adopted decision making methodology (WP5). The BRIDGE DSS is based on an analytical and a design component, linking the bio-physical processes in urban environment with socio-economic parameters. The DSS estimates the trade-off between the environmental and the socio-economic dimensions of changes in the urban metabolism introduced by urban planning interventions.

The analytical component supports the assessment of the environmental impacts of the energy, water, carbon and pollutants fluxes, while the design component offers tools to assess different planning alternatives. These planning alternatives are practically modifications of land-use and resource and therefore modifications of the metabolism of the urban system. The link between the analytical and the design components is a multi-criteria evaluation module to supplement decision support capabilities. This module combines the environmental with the socio-economic aspects of urban metabolism and evaluates the performance of each planning alternative in terms of sustainability.

The technical design of the DSS was also clarified, defining the data storage and flow modules, the communication interfaces, the calculation modules, the visualization modules and GUI. Both the conceptual model of the BRIDGE DSS along with the architecture to be used, are described in the DSS Design Report (Deliverable D.6.1).

A beta version of the BRIDGE DSS was developed based on the methodology of WP5 and demonstrated in the Umbrella CoP meeting (external participants from case studies) as well as the 3rd Progress Meeting (BRIDGE participants).

The first version of the BRIDGE DSS Prototype (Deliverable D.6.2) was then developed using as a basis the previously developed beta version. The first version of the BRIDGE DSS Prototype included data from WP3 (GIS data and the planning alternatives that were specified by the local stakeholders as part of the CoP meeting) and model simulation results from WP4 available at that time. The first BRIDGE DSS Prototype was demonstrated in the 5th Progress Meeting.

Improvements on the first version of the BRIDGE DSS Prototype were constantly made since its release. More model simulation results were added, the Graphical User Interface was significantly improved, several bugs were fixed and comments and suggestions of internal evaluation were taken into account.

A User Guide accompanies every available version of the BRIDGE DSS since the first version of the BRIDGE DSS Prototype and is constantly being updated. Through the process of evaluation (WP7) feedback on the design and functionalities of the DSS was available. The available feedback was reviewed and the DSS was updated according to the user's requirements and remarks towards the Final DSS Prototype (Deliverable D.6.3) along with the respective User Guide.

Significant Achievements of WP6 are stated below:

- Since the beginning of the project DSS conceptual design was defined and a mock-up version was developed for internal demonstration in the 1st PM.

- Both the conceptual model along with the architecture to be used in the BRIDGE DSS were documented and described in the DSS Design Report (Deliverable D.6.1).

- Spatial and non-spatial databases have been developed in the framework of WP6.

- A beta-version of the BRIDGE DSS has been developed for demonstration in the 1st Demonstration Event - Umbrella CoP 1.

- The decision making methodology has been implemented in the beta version of the DSS.

- The first version of the BRIDGE DSS Prototype (Deliverable D.6.2) was developed including GIS data and planning alternatives data and model simulation results from WP4 available at that time.

- The first BRIDGE DSS Prototype was demonstrated in the 5th Progress Meeting.

- A User Guide has been established along with the first BRIDGE DSS prototype and is constantly being updated.

- Available feedback from WP7 was reviewed and the DSS was updated to the Final DSS Prototype (Deliverable D.6.3) along with the respective User Guide.

WP7: DSS Application

A Foresight Exercise was organized by UAVR in London on December 2010. The development of an appropriate methodology was essential in order to ensure that the results provided by the strategic scenario exercises would provide suitable outcome to be used in the BRIDGE DSS. Among the Foresight Exercise objectives was to get a more exact notion of the final outputs of the DSS and to analyse how decision-makers priorities changes, in response to different future scenarios, affect the DSS results. Foresight exercise focused on macro dimensions, such as climate change, energy supply and economic performance. Different possible futures were discussed using a scenario analysis methodology, and participants defined the extent to which weights vary accordingly to each scenario, using a Delphi questionnaire. Through this exercise the debate with experts and urban planning practitioners from the private and academic sector on what will be sustainable urban policies in the near future and how to integrate them in the current urban policy was promoted. All outcomes of the Foresight Exercise are documented in the Strategic scenario analysis report (Deliverable D.7.1).

In addition, a DSS evaluation procedure was organized by KCL in the framework of WP7. An on-line questionnaire was developed.

The final outcome of WP7 was the production of a report (D.7.3) with the aim of devising guidelines for sustainable planning strategies based on the outcomes from the DSS application, the expert team analysis of the scenarios results and the CoP workshops on urban metabolism.

Significant Achievements of WP7 are stated below:

- WP7 has contributed to the conceptual design of the DSS.

- A Foresight Exercise was organized in London to develop an appropriate methodology in order to ensure that the results provided by the strategic scenario exercises provide suitable outcomes to be used in the BRIDGE DSS. The effort is described in the Strategic scenario analysis report (Deliverable D.7.1).

- An on-line questionnaire has been created in order to efficiently evaluate the tools and functionalities of the BRIDGE DSS and collect the users' feedback.

- The users' feedback has been collected and after the update of the DSS, both the collected feedback and the DSS improvements based on that are described in the Case studies - DSS application report (Deliverable D.7.2).

- A report summarizing the guidelines for sustainable planning strategies was devised within WP7 (Deliverable D.7.3).

WP8: Demonstration

WP8 initiated with the 1st Demonstration event "Umbrella CoP meeting". ALTERRA has organized the Umbrella CoP Meeting that took place in Athens, on May 5, 2010, in collaboration with NKUA, TCD, CMCC and UBAS. FORTH also participated in this meeting and demonstrated the beta version of the BRIDGE DSS. Each one of the five BRIDGE case studies was represented by one or two participants in the Umbrella CoP Meeting.

Holding CoP meetings in the five case study cities, as well as the Umbrella CoP, a discussion platform was created between end-users and BRIDGE researchers. Even though the development of the BRIDGE DSS was in early stage, the end-users have shown interest, and have delivered good inputs to make design choices for the product. The BRIDGE researchers have shown great interest in the outcomes of the CoP meetings. They contributed to the organization of these meetings and use the results as input for the next steps in the BRIDGE project.

WP8 was concluded with the 2nd Demonstration event " Sustainable Urban Planning Conference" organized by ALTERRA, UBAS, FORTH and CNRM that was held in Brussels on October 26, 2011. This Conference aimed at facilitating the exchange of ideas and experience between urban planners and BRIDGE researchers regarding sustainability issues and to increase participants' understanding about the integrated character of urban metabolism and its role in urban planning; involving municipal politicians, architects, property developers, urban professionals, consultancy firms, and EU policy makers in the discussion on how to proceed towards realization of sustainable cities; providing hands on experience with a new tool supporting sustainable urban planning: the BRIDGE Decision Support System (DSS) that has been developed within the project.

Significant Achievements of WP8 are stated below:

- A discussion platform was established between the end-users and BRIDGE researchers in the framework of WP8 since the beginning of the project

- The 1st Demonstration event was organized. The beta version of the DSS was demonstrated and discussion followed between WP8 and the possible DSS users in an early stage.

- The 2nd Demonstration event was organized as a Sustainable Planning Conference.

- A hands-on application organized in the framework of the 2nd Demonstration Event, the BRIDGE DSS was presented and useful feedback was collected from the users.

Beneficiaries Abbreviations used in the text

FORTH Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas

KCL King's College London

CNR Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

IETU Instytut Ekologii Terenów Uprzemys?owionych

UPM Technical University of Madrid

UAVR University of Aveiro

UBAS University of Basel

TCD The Provost, Fellows and Scholars of the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin

UHEL University of Helsinki

NKUA National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

CMCC Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici S.c.a.r.l.

CNRM Météo France CNRM

ALTERRA Stichting Landbouwkundig Onderzoek

SOTON University of Southampton

Potential Impact:
Potential Impact

Land use planning can be defined as the spatial disposition of land, resources and services to allow for sustainable, efficient, safe and economically viable development in rural and urban settings. Sustainable urban planning in particular entails consideration of a number of aspects including: socio-economic characteristics; planning approaches to development patterns and infrastructure; and, most importantly for the BRIDGE project, existing and future environmental challenges. The effective integration of these considerations helps protect and improve urban environments, through the appropriate provision and management of natural resources.

Environmental assessment procedures promote sustainable development by enabling the identification and mitigation of negative impacts arising from the implementation of urban development plans or specific projects. Directive 2001/42/EC (CEC, 2001), also known as the SEA Directive, sets out the requirements for the environmental assessment of plans (e.g. land use, transport) and programmes (e.g. waste management) that are likely to have significant environmental effects. In a similar way to SEA but including the assessment of social and economic factors, Sustainability Appraisal (SA) is used by UK planning authorities to assess whether proposed plans and policies meet sustainable development objectives (UKP, 2004). At a lower planning level, Directive 97/11/EC (CEC, 1997), amending 85/337/EEC (CEC, 1985) - also known as the EIA Directive, applies to the assessment of the effects of certain private and public, small or large scale projects (e.g. roads, housing states) on the environment.

Addressing the legislative requirements of both Directives has significantly shaped planning processes; which, as a result, need to evaluate the sustainability and environmental viability of proposed planning interventions. In addition, it is required to monitor implementation to ensure that any potential negative impacts are identified on a timely manner, and subsequently avoided, mitigated or remediated. Environmental assessment processes are facilitated by the development of socio-economic and environmental indicators against which planning interventions can be assessed. Such indicators are also used to monitor progress towards established sustainability objectives or to evaluate changes in officially set environmental quality targets/thresholds.

Given that land use plans are intrinsically spatial (i.e. link land use to geographic location), spatial evidence and spatial approaches can significantly benefit plan-making. Spatial tools such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can support the integration of socio-economic and environmental considerations by providing evidence through the spatial assessment of relevant datasets. GIS have the capability to integrate and simultaneously analyse multiple datasets, and help to address cumulative and large-scale effects. They can also present relevant socio-economic, environmental and planning considerations in a geographic and visual form and, thus, convey information in a more efficient manner, raising awareness on the spatial implications of a planning intervention. Moreover, they can be combined with external modelling tools to predict likely future environmental and/or socio-economic conditions, based on the characteristics of the planning alternatives.

The BRIDGE project aims at developing a robust DSS that avails of GIS to integrate multiple environmental and socio-economic spatial datasets and combines them with the spatial results of modelling operations. The methodology is based on Multi-Criteria Assessment (MCA) techniques, whereby each spatial dataset is weighted according to end-user or public opinions, prioritising parameters (i.e. criteria and/or indicators) according to planning or policy priorities for a given urban context and, thus, promoting a transparent and participative approach to the sustainability assessment of urban planning alternatives.

The impact assessment methodology is largely shaped by the framework of the BRIDGE DSS, which defines the user-choices and information management. As the DSS is based on GIS, the impact assessment methodology has a strong spatial component, combining multiple spatial datasets in a systematic manner to obtain geographically illustrated assessment results and, thus, use more concise evidence to inform planners and decision-makers.

The main objective of the impact assessment methodology is to integrate information on physical flows of energy and material with social and economic changes and policy priorities. Environmental and socio-economic indicators represent the interface between the sustainability objectives set by the DSS end-user and the underlying spatial data and numerical models, and thereby used to assess planning alternatives. Consequently, the final set of indicators is used to assist decision-making in achieving a more sustainable urban planning through the use of the DSS.

The methodological framework for the assessment of the planning interventions in each of the case study cities has the overall goal of increasing the sustainability of the urban metabolism in the BRIDGE case studies. The final scope of the assessment methodology is to assist CoP members (or future DSS end-users) to better explore the decisions at hand; and to analyse the trade-offs between the competing criteria (i.e. the degrees to which the planning alternatives meet the predefined sustainability objectives, based on the defined sustainability indicators).

The methodological components include: environmental assessment principles, MCA techniques and GIS, all of which are combined into the BRIDGE DSS. The methodology has its foundations on the following premises:

- The methodology is based on impact assessment approaches, where the feasibility of the alternatives will be evaluated against their environmental and socio-economic impacts (i.e. sustainability of the proposal), illustrated by changes in the relevant sustainability indicators.

- The methodology is based on MCA techniques, combining multiple spatial and non-spatial, quantitative and qualitative considerations into a single assessment.

- The methodology is flexible enough to be applicable in the different socio-economic contexts of the case studies and to address the different nature of the planning interventions suggested by the CoPs.

- The methodology combines all available spatial and non-spatial quantitative information, including that produced by the models available within BRIDGE.

- Where necessary and feasible, it also incorporates additional considerations suggested by CoP (which cannot be modelled but for which data may become available). These criteria may rely on quantitative information from third parties (e.g. costs of planning interventions) or qualitative judgements of experts (e.g. order of magnitude of achieved improvements on human well-being).

- The methodology is able to combine quantitative information (e.g. indicator values) with stakeholders' opinion (i.e. qualitative judgements on the significance or importance of the different sustainability objectives and indicators specified by the CoP and based on the planning priorities for the city).

- The methodology considers costs of measures and other economic indicators without the need to translate all other criteria (e.g. environmental performance and social aspects) into monetary terms.

- To facilitate the assessment and enable comparison, all sustainability indicators are normalised according to their performance, and each planning alternative performance is compared against a reference planning alternative, since the political decision would be made among the alternatives under evaluation.

- The methodology takes into account the uncertainty in the model outcomes and the elicited end-users' trade-off judgements.

- The assessment approach allows the end-user to review the performance/outcomes of each planning interventions in form of a spider diagram (where the trade-off between the criteria are clearly depicted), and, if the end-user wishes, to aggregate the various outcomes into a partial ranking (where each planning alternative is given a relative score or index allowing performance between alternatives to be compared).

- The methodology provides an assessment of alternatives for a given moment in time.

- The methodology is implementable in the DSS and applicable in the BRIDGE case studies within a given timeframe and human resources and constrains.

- A user-manual is included to guide the user through the assessment process, informing them about the need to define a-priori the decision problem and criteria, assist them in understanding the required inputs, address double-counting, and draw attention to accuracy and currency considerations when interpreting results.

Main Dissemination Activities

Two dissemination circles were developed in the framework of BRIDGE: the inner circle reflecting the partners in the project and the outer reflecting interested users who are not directly associated to the project. A link between the two circles is established so as information from the inner circle to be transferred to the outer one and vice versa.

The inner circle aimed at establishing dissemination at the internal level: within each project participant organisation, and within project partners. Internal dissemination aimed at a high degree of dissemination and knowledge share that was obtained by reinforcing the consortium inner communication, creating and continuously updating common knowledge bases. The internal dissemination was supported by many electronic means: internet meetings; the exchange of files and data through the BRIDGE ftp server; daily exchange of emails. A newsletter was the support of efficient circulation of information among beneficiaries, but also a list of external recipients. Moreover, brain storming sessions were organised at the cross-roads of several WPs to foster creativity on specific aspects of the project.

The outer circle aims at establishing dissemination at two external levels:

* External dissemination towards professionals:

- BRIDGE Web-site, which is continuously updated providing information on the progress of the project;

- CoP workshops targeting researchers and urban planners. The objective is to widely disseminate knowledge and know-how generated in BRIDGE. The project will develop specific actions in order to promote academic and industrial cross-fertilisation;

- publications in scientific reviews;

- Dissemination during BRIDGE demonstration events.

* External dissemination towards possible users: Publications in non-specific journals or press releases were prepared to attract maximal attention to the project work. Emphasizing the public interest of the BRIDGE project is quite important, as well as the fact that the project outcomes benefit the public welfare.

A two-level dissemination strategy using more general media as dissemination platforms as well as specialised media was undertaken in this project:

* Level I: General media, spanning the whole potential users groups, accessed by a wider audience (web-site, newsletters).

* Level II: Specialised media with distribution channels accessed by key users (articles in scientific journals, conferences presentations, workshops, demonstration events, internal meetings).

Both levels are being targeted simultaneously for faster results. However, a full exploitation of Level II media is a more long term exercise and will require a more substantial effort which will continue beyond the duration of the project. So Level I and II corresponds to both internal and external dissemination towards professionals, and only Level I corresponds to External dissemination toward citizens.

Exploitation of results

BRIDGE was bringing together a critical mass of scientific leading institutions in the field of urban climatology, socio-economics, environmental science, impact assessment, numerical modelling, remote sensing, GIS/DSS.

The BRIDGE DSS may refer to different groups of participants according to their where the complementarily of beneficiaries and the well-balancing of the consortium is presented. It should be noted that some participants may belong to more than one of these groups, having in this way the role of interface between different groups and supporting the horizontal integration of the consortium.

Three main groups are indicated: a) Participants mainly related to the observation of physical flows and the analysis of the measured data (bio-physical scientists); b) participants mainly related to urban planning requirements and to validation and demonstration of the BRIDGE system (end users in BRIDGE case studies); c) participants mainly related to interfacing of the above two categories and therefore bridging the gap between bio-physical sciences and urban planning. The CoP is the link from urban planners to bio-physical sciences, whereas the DSS is the link from scientists to planners. A continuous iteration was active during the project life cycle. However, this iteration had two main phases: In the first phase, user requirements were captured via CoP and decomposed to specifications for the DSS development, whereas in the second phase, user feedback on the DSS was captured via CoP and decomposed to specifications for the DSS refinement.

It is therefore obvious that BRIDGE is bringing together several different skills including a number of end-users enabling the test of the DSS in five representative European cities. With participants from 11 different countries, BRIDGE is a true European effort, strengthening the European competitiveness in the field of sustainable urban planning. More than their respective implication, a real synergy has been built among partners. This synergy is the insurance of a positive result of the project with an aim of a concrete exploitation of the results and, of course of an enlargement at the whole European Community.

Apart from the objectives of the project, each member of the consortium had its own objective leading by its own involvement, since the consortium's added value to each participant is different. The added value of the consortium to the each beneficiary is briefly described below:

Urban studies is a main research direction at FORTH, but urban metabolism has never been studied in detail in past application areas. FORTH had the opportunity to coordinate a project which focused on urban metabolism providing innovative strategies for sustainable use of energy and materials by developing a DSS. The consortium provided state-of-the-art methods and techniques to create the various modules of the DSS, therefore a high quality product was developed. Moreover, FORTH had the opportunity to collaborate with a high degree of excellence scientific team, supporting the investigation of impacts of urban physical flows.

KCL extended its research and operational experience in urban atmospheric processes and thermal remote sensing and will have real time operations with policy and decision making links.

CNR was benefited by broadening its interests and of applications of SERAs and their scientific payload. One of the crucial aspects of modern science is the collaboration between experimentalists and the modellers.

IETU gained development of new perspective for the existing activities aimed at bringing up a complex modelling tool for air quality management and broadening it with the urban climate issues. It also gained development of new competences of the IETU team which can be used to solve existing and future problems of Polish agglomerations being under dynamic redevelopment.

BRIDGE was an opportunity for UPM to have a unique experience to share information, models, data and strategies on the field of urban air quality.

BRIDGE gave UAVR the opportunity for applying and validating the numerical approaches/models that usually applies in the multi-scope study of air pollution, and also to develop and validate new tools (as it is the case of URBAIR). The participation of representatives from different cities was a unique opportunity towards the agreement between modelling results and end-users needs. Innovative indicators' construction methods were explored combining data generated by physical models on urban metabolism with socio-economic information, as a basis for a DSS designed to help urban planners in assessing the sustainability of urban planning decisions. Scientific synergies were explored from the combination of modelling in social sciences to environmental physical models. Finally, through BRIDGE, UAVR had the opportunity to share the knowledge with other research teams dedicated to air quality modelling and to the construction of urban sustainability indicators and its application in influencing urban planning policies.

The contribution through their expertise in micrometeorology and the cooperation with experienced partners within BRIDGE focussed on urban metabolism was an excellent opportunity for UBAS to learn more, to exchange knowledge and to deepen existing or establish new relationships.

TCD had the opportunity to collaborate and draw on the expertise of colleagues with a range of interdisciplinary skills on a European scale project.

The partnership through BRIDGE project strengthened the collaboration in the field of urban studies between the national and international physico-ecological and socio-economical research groups. Collaboration enhanced the linking of the field measurements with spatial monitoring and GIS applications and the sharing of information and modelling practises among partners improved their generality across Europe. The DSS ponted out possibilities for the utilisation of the research facilities and capacities in practical city planning.

The consortium provided state-of-the-art methods and techniques to promote NKUA's research. NKUA benefited from BRIDGE through the involvement of new researchers. They were specialized in new technologies such as satellite remote sensing and image processing techniques, and acquired specific skills and expertise in the field of urban climate and heat island phenomenon, energy policies and sustainable planning.

CMCC shared and improved the scientific expertise of physical, economic and urban planning experts, as well as improved the number of tools for impact evaluations.

BRIDGE generated many possibilities for CNRM to improve and evaluate TEB against measurements data sets and also gave CNRM the possibility to make the link with potential end users of our recent advances in urban climate knowledge.

ALTERRA too expanded their knowledge network in integrated water management to urban air quality expertise in relation to city planning and enabled to investigate the preferred framework to involve end-users of large cities.

The SOTON group has focused up on measurement, modelling and model validation of physical pollutant fluxes and sinks. This work focused on the fluxes of particulate pollution (PM10) at the London and Firenze case studies and planning alternatives. The conclusions from these studies were considered in designing the DSS and the modelling approach will be of major benefit in the planning the urban environments of the future.

Summarizing the significant dissemination and exploitation activities of BRIDGE project:

- The BRIDGE web site ( was created by NKUA and is operational since June 2009 providing a source of information at the public and the researchers not participating in the consortium.

- A Dissemination and Use Plan was also developed since the early stage of the project (Deliverable D.9.1).

- Technical internet (skype) meetings were organized regularly among different WPs and project participants.

- NKUA and FORTH in collaboration with ALTERRA prepared the BRIDGE leaflet that was used to the 1st Round of CoP meetings. The leaflet was translated into Greek by NKUA and Polish by IETU.

- A database of urban planning scientists, architects and potential users contact details were created in order to keep them informed for the BRIDGE findings, main achievements and upcoming events.

- Four issues of the BRIDGE Newsletter were released during the project and dispatch to the contact database. The BRIDGE Newsletters are also available in public through the BRIDGE web-site.

- An ftp server was set up since the beginning of the project to elaborate the files exchange in the consortium and includes all significant documents related to the project. FORTH has been updating the database in the BRIDGE ftp server where all documents related to BRIDGE project, as well as the GIS datasets of all the case studies can be found in the password protected ftp site:

- A book on the BRIDGE outcomes is also prepared and it is expected to be published by EarthScan by the end of 2012.

- The 2nd Demonstration Event of BRIDGE was organized as a conference: 'BRIDGE conference - Sustainable urban planning'

- Brochures were created and distributed by each member of the consortium during a later stage of the project and used also as invitations for the 2nd Demonstration Event (BRIDGE Conference)

- There was a remarkable number of publications in peer-reviewed journal and the publication activity is anticipated to be continued after the end of the project.

- There was also a remarkable number of announcements in scientific conferences

- The publication of a book including the main scientific achievements of BRIDGE project is in state of preparation.

List of Websites:


N. Plastira 100, Vassilika Vouton,

P.O. Box 1385, GR-71110,

Heraklion, Crete, Greece

Nektarios Chrysoulakis - Project Coordinator

Tel. +30-2810 391762

Fax +30-2810 391761


B2 - KCL

Environmental Monitoring and Modelling Group

Department of Geography

The Strand, London WC2R 2LS, United Kingdom

London WC2R 2LS

United Kingdom

Sue Grimmond

Tel. +44 20 7848 2275

Fax +44 20 7848 2287


B3 - CNR


p.o. box 101 - S. Sebastiano-

80040 - Napoli


Enzo Magliulo

Tel. + 39 815 461035

Fax + 39 817717325



ul. Kossutha 6




Tomasz Staszewski

Tel. + 48 32 2546031

Fax + 48 32 2541717


B5 - UPM

Campus de Montegancedo

Boadilla del Monte-28660

Madrid, Spain

Roberto San José

Tel. +34-91-336-7465

Fax +34-91-336-7412



Department of Environment and Planning

3810-193 Aveiro


Carlos Borrego

Tel. +351 234 400 800

Fax +351 234 382 876



Departement Umweltwissenschaften

Klingelbergstrasse 27

CH-4056 Basel


Roland Vogt

Tel. +41 61 2670751

Fax +41 61 267 06 89



Botany Department

Dublin 2


Mike Jones

Tel. +353 (0)1 8961769

Fax +353 (0)1 8961147



Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2, P.O. Box 64

FI-00014 University of Helsinki


Timo Vesala

Tel. +358-9-19150862

Fax +358-9-19150717


B10 - NKUA

Panepistimioupolis, Build, PHYS-5,

15784 Athens, Greece

Mattheos Santamouris

Tel. +30 210 7276847, +30 210 7276934

Fax +30 210 7295282


B11 - CMCC

Dipartimento di Economia e Sistemi Arborei - DESA

Via Enrico De Nicola,

107100 Sassari


Donatella Spano

Tel. +39 079 229339

Fax +39 079 229337


B12 - CNRM

Avenue Coriolis 42

31057/01 Toulouse


Grégoire Pigeon

Tel. + 33 (0)561079765

Fax + 33 (0)561079765



Wageningen University and Research

P.O. Box 47

6700 AA Wageningen

The Netherlands

Judith Klostermann

Tel. +31 317 486427

Fax +31 317 419000



School of Biological Sciences

Life Sciences Building, University of Southampton

SO17 1BJ

United Kingdom

Gail Taylor

Tel. +44 (0)2380 592 335

Fax +44 (0)2380 594 459


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