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  • Periodic Report Summary 3 - TRUST (High resolution monitoring, real time visualization and reliable modeling of highly controlled, intermediate and up-scalable size pilot injection tests of underground storage of CO2)

Periodic Report Summary 3 - TRUST (High resolution monitoring, real time visualization and reliable modeling of highly controlled, intermediate and up-scalable size pilot injection tests of underground storage of CO2)

Project Context and Objectives:
WP01 - Management and Coordination
WP02 - Sites and Field tests: Prepare the Heletz site for the CO2 injection experiments to be conducted in TRUST; Gather data and information on the Hontomin experiments; Gather data and information on the Miranga CO2 injection sites; Exchange of information and contribute to the design of injection experiments in the Swedish/Baltic sites.
WP03: MMV technologies and real-time reporting and visualization: Design and implement safe, cost effective and multi-purpose monitoring technologies enabling to verify the storage stability and to produce reliable and high-resolution datasets for model validation; Field test of a new single-hole, integrated, monitoring device based on the preliminary work conducted as part of the MUSTANG and PANACEA FP7 projects; Design and implement a new integrated active and passive seismic monitoring system; Develop the (Kinetic Interface Sensitive) KIS tracer based on the preliminary work conducted during the MUSTANG project; Determine of permeability changes as a proxy for the extent of the CO2 plume; Integrate surface and downhole measurements and monitoring results in an internet platform with online visualization tools.
WP04 - Modeling: Model and modeling approach development, evaluation and validation against comprehensive sets of field data; Development of approaches for long-term and large scale (industrial) predictions of CO2 injection and storage; Design simulations of injection experiments, including testing of different injection scenarios; Interpretation and model matching of the injection experiments; Development of the operational models for the sites for large-scale and long-time predictions; Providing a field data case for model cross-validation and providing a first approach for such cross-validation.
WP05 - Strategies for storage management: Define optimal injection strategies and modes of injection in order to maximize the trapping while minimizing the reservoir pressure build-up and minimizing the energy usage and other major costs of the operation; Plan and implement injection strategies, first for the experiments to be carried out within the frame of TRUST (WP2), including testing of different modes of injection, evaluating the trade-offs of injecting dissolved CO2, assessing the effectiveness of different injection geometries and envisaging testing injection of CO2 micro-bubbles in brine; Extend the analyses, by means of modeling, to other conditions and site characteristics; Analyze results and suggest recommendations on best practices for injection, from the outlet of the supply line to the reservoir and the related pressure management.
WP06 - Leakage detection and mitigation: Develop a new technology for remediation based on reactive fluid injection (self-carbonation solute);
Determine the optimal fluid formulations and uses according to the local hydro-thermo-chemical properties of the reservoir; Conduct a controlled experiment of CO2 leakage in a poorly plugged or unplugged well at Heletz site; Monitor the start of the leaking and its development with time; Perform the remediation fluid injection; Demonstrate that it is an operational technology for the mitigating of leaky wells.
WP07 - Risk Assessment: Procedures, Protocols for Certification and Licensing: Develop and implement a site specific risk management procedure Heletz site, aimed at achieving a comprehensive risk assessment process, controlling and monitoring, communication of information, handling and minimizing residual risks (especially downhole, near the wellbore, and within the caprock) and detecting and handling possible failures of the seal or near-well completion; Compare the risk management tools applied for Heletz site with the approaches and findings in Hontomin; Use the risk management findings as input for further applications such as the development of guidelines, protocols for site licensing and certification, liability issues.
WP08 - Communication, public engagement and liabilities: Ensure broad visibility of TRUST, by establishing a solid platform for sharing knowledge within the consortium as well as for reaching the widest audience possible, by means of modern IT technologies and social networks; Address issues of communication, social acceptance and liability in order to enable the project partners to fulfill their communication efforts and stakeholder involvement tasks; Delineate a preliminary framework for the liability issues in relation to the site certification and licensing.
WP09 - Training and capacity building: Promote education, training and capacity building in the field of geological storage of CO2; Construct in at least one of sites (the Heletz site) facilities for the technical training and demonstration; Promote education and competence building by organizing formal educational courses for the international forum and related to this, develop course material for teaching; Promote education and competence building by affiliating of PhD students, Post-Doctoral scientists and Master students to the R&D work of TRUST; Actively disseminate to the scientific/technical community (industries, regulators) via the end-users group (BAP) of the project.
WP10 - Extrapolation: Extrapolate the results of the project to the industrial scale application as well as to develop generic approaches for such upscaling; Identification of typical settings and characteristics of industrial scale operations; Upscaling of the model simulations and the results of the field injection experiments to industrial scale; Upscaling of the monitoring strategies and network design for large scale; Preparation of protocols for site management; Formulation of best practices and recommendations and exploitation of results.

Project Results:
WP01: The PSC had to deal with the necessary repairs of the injection and monitoring wells at Heletz, the mitigation experiment at CNRS site and some additional transfers. An amendment to the contract was submitted accordingly. Budget redistribution was based on the resources saved by the cancellation of the second deep monitoring well at Heletz.
WP02: The site preparations towards CO2 injection were finalized. The repair operations of the injection and monitoring wells started in June 2016 and were completed in August 2016. So far, we succeeded in repairing the injection well. The repair of the monitoring well will require additional operations, which are planned for the spring 2017. The first CO2 injection experiment took place in September 2016, the single well push-pull experiment, started on August 28, 2016 (heating and reference tests) and ended in September 29, 2016. The CO2 injection occurred without any major problems and the monitoring system provided all the measurements required for the interpretation.
WP03: We have prepared a full review of the different Measurements Monitoring and Verification (MMV) technologies and real-time reporting and visualization, on the Heletz and Hontomín sites. The manufacturing and testing of shallow seismic borehole instrumentation is completed. It consists of 15 4-component receivers. The installation depths will be 20m, 70m, 120m, 170m, 220m. The installation will be semi-permanent (the instruments will be kept stationary for the duration of the experiment but can be retrieved for service and relocation if need be). We generated a synthetic seismic data set consisting of 2D and 3D baseline and repeat surveys to test acquisition geometry and processing steps. The velocity models were built by assuming a constant velocity (4000/s) above the reservoir and combining geological model and logging information inside the reservoir at the Heletz site. The acquisition is a copy of the synthetic baseline data set generated during the MUSTANG project. We developed a stable laboratory setup to conduct two-phase flow experiments with KIS (Kinetic Interface Sensitive) tracers. We tested each part of the system with regard to its behavior to n-octane – water system (i.e., frits, glass beads, steel column and tubing). Laboratory experiments are being conducted. The investigation of pressure tomography (PT) shows that not only the plume geometry, but also the CO2 saturation can be identified. We compared PT to crosswell seismic tomography (ST) under same conditions. We implemented the tomographic experiments (multilevel fluid injections and P-wave pulses) in several heterogeneous models, and then inverted the hydraulic and seismic traveltimes, respectively. Results show that PT can clearly depict the aquifer structure prior to CO2 injection, as it directly relates to permeability. However, after CO2 injection, ST performs better than PT for tracking the CO2 plume in more heterogeneous aquifers. We then jointly clustered the inverted diffusivity and velocity differences from PT and ST. Clustering results indicate that PT can complement ST by improving the shape identification and reducing estimation errors of CO2 saturation. The web-based software platform for the online and realtime visualization of the monitoring data has been deployed and is accessible from any device supporting a browser through the project website. It has been used to collect and visualize data during the CO2 injection experiment.
WP04: We completed the fine design of the CO2 injection experiments to be conducted at Heletz. The analysis and interpretation of the first CO2 injection experiment at Heletz has started but is still at its early stages. Geomechanical investigation addressed understanding the potential geomechanical effects of cold CO2 injection on the integrity of the shale caprock at Heletz and to model this loss of integrity by evaluating the potential propagation of fractures that pre-exist in the shale caprock. We improved the modeling capability of the coupled reservoir-injection well model T2WELL by allowing CO2 phase change. This allowed simulating the injection process and the design of its optimization as well as the pressure relief phase. With regard to Hontomin, we conducted the model comparisons with the data from the push-pull tracer tests performed last year in Hontomin, for characterization of the injection site. CSIC has just received the chemical results concerning the different tracers used and has started the interpretation. We have consolidated the methodology for the modeling of the long term and large scale behavior of the reservoir, including geomechanical and thermal effects. Involved simulators include LNBL-TOUGH2-ECO2N, LBNL-TOUGH2-ECO2M, PFLOTRAN, CSMP, DUMUX, LBNL-T2WELL-ECOM (improved version) and CODE_BRIGHT. The work on injection strategies continued, including injection of cold CO2, sequential injection of water and CO2 and dissolved CO2.
WP05: We conducted a comparative study of difference injection modes as modelled in WP04. Also, we considered the advantages and shortcomings of well geometries (vertical versus horizontal wells). UCAM is developing combined models of capillary and dissolution trapping for the assessment of their combined impact on CO2 propagation and the concomitant risks of leakage. Work has focused on two key aspects. First, we have used the large aspect ratio of propagating CO2 currents to develop so-called vertical equilibrium models. The underlying work characterizing the impact of capillary trapping and dissolution on long-term CO2 plume migration is ongoing at UCAM. The results of this work will be used, in conjunction with the other consortium members, to assess the benefits of different storage management options.
WP06: The main result concerns the noticeable improvement of the optimal formulation and optimal use of solgel for low temperature applications (i.e. for injection in subsurface wells). We demonstrated the efficiency of the product to decrease permeability of reservoir rock when the reaction ends as a solid gel (whereas the swelling mechanism were reducing the sealing efficiency when the product undergoes drying); We obtained positive results concerning the possibility of keeping the product as a solid gel state when emplaced into water-saturated reservoir rocks (further experiments will be setup to confirm this result and demonstrate its low level of alterability with CO2-rich reservoirs fluids); We managed to decrease both the Si/water and Si/alcohol ration while maintaining a viscosity sufficiently low for being injected in a porous medium.
WP07: The risk assessment procedure has been implemented at Heletz and validated during the injection experiment that we conducted at Heletz. Because the data from Hontomin, which are necessary to fulfill this task, are not accessible, an alternative has been investigated. In a comprehensive literature search, a very recent publication from 2016 concerning the security assessment on geological storage in Hontomin has been found [Vish-2016]. Aside, other studies from different CO2 storage facilities all over the world have been gained.
WP08: Most of the activities in this WP are completed. During this period, the report on the investigation of the liabilities problems for site certification and licensing developed by GKH (a subcontractor of EWRE) was completed.
WP09: The planning of the third course has started and is scheduled for September 2017 in Barcelona. The preparation of the book has been finalized ("Niemi, A., Bear, J. and Bensabat, J. (Editors) (2016) ‘GEOLOGICAL STORAGE OF CO2 IN DEEP SALINE FORMATIONS"). The Special edition of the IJGGC journal has been completed ((Volume 48, Part 1 pp. 1-186 (May 2016)).
WP10: Much of the activity in this WP has started in the last year of the project. Activities carried so far include the collection of data on typical settings of candidate reservoirs, and the development and or adaptation of codes for large scale simulations.

Potential Impact:
At the end of TRUST, we will have a comprehensive expertise on the theoretical and practical characterization of candidate sites for CO2 injection, on the design, planning and execution of sites for CO2 storage, including all the related aspects, on the design and execution of deep drilling wells and their completion and on the design and planning of CO2 storage in geological formations. These activities have been carried out by the project team and therefore TRUST has created new capacity in this field, which could be offered as services if and when CO2 storage is deployed or alternatively in closed technologies (such as shale gas and oil and geothermal energy). The project team has gained substantial expertise in the development, adaption and or application of complex simulation software covering the whole spectrum of the processes involved during CO2 storage. We have gained expertise on how to optimize the injection of CO2. We have deployed tools for the on line and realtime visualization of the measurements in a platform that could be easily shared with the wider public. In this line TRUST would contribute to the public understanding of the risks and challenges posed by CO2 geological storage.

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Reported by

Environmental & Water Resources Engineering Ltd.
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