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  • Periodic Reporting for period 1 - PemredTech (Innovative Particle Emissions Reduction device for internal combustion engines, facilitating compliance with the present and future automotive particle emissions regulations.)

PemredTech Report Summary

Project ID: 735620

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - PemredTech (Innovative Particle Emissions Reduction device for internal combustion engines, facilitating compliance with the present and future automotive particle emissions regulations.)

Reporting period: 2016-06-01 to 2016-11-30

Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project

Many of the inhaled nanoparticles are volatile particles, condensing as the exhaust gas cools. There is increasing evidence that these cause cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and carcinogenic health issues.
The EU regulates only the solids – i.e. less than 10% of the combustion related particles - and excludes the more hazardous volatiles.
Our innovation agglomerates volatile and solid particles into fewer and more massive particulates.
We aim to incorporate it in emission control systems – increasing their efficiency, reducing their cost, supporting the tightening of emissions regulations and reducing health hazards.

The study findings support the continuation of the project while modifying the objectives and strategy. We plan to apply for Phase 2 after we will perform the mainstream integration work. It enabled us to better understand the automotive innovation cycle and develop a new approach. Our innovation must be introduced at an earlier phase of the automotive development cycle and be integrated into a solution sponsored by a recognized industry provider.

Looking forward, the study confirmed the relevance of the technology and its novelty for the upcoming emission regulations. It also provided better insight concerning the impact on the state of the art.

Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far

The study's conclusion is that our technology should be embedded in mainstream solutions in order to be adopted by the market. That implies a step back in the PAI positioning - from the present TRL 7 (demonstrated in operational environment) as a stand-alone solution, to TRL 4 (Lab validated) or even 3 (Experimental Proof of Concept) – when it comes to integrating it as a component in a mainstream solution.

It also changes the company’s business model, from a product manufacturer to a technology provider, implying revenue from services and licensing instead of physical products. That in turn implies a much leaner operation and lower equity requirements.

Work Tasks and Results:

->Technical solutions study (Task 3.1 1). Main Results: Mapped our relevant added value elements to the main solutions.

->Market study (Task 3.1 1). Main Results: Modified Positioning and Value Proposition; Revised Business Model; Market Segmentation, Size and potential revenue.

->Technology Acceptance reach-out (Task 3.1 2). Main Results: Invited to join an emissions control research group of a leading EU academic institution and two automotive manufacturers (formal conclusion in December);
Joined the dominant policy influencer / certification body as member; Discussions with several environmental agencies.

->Business Partners Feasibility – Emissions Control (Task 3.1 3). Main Results: Prepared technical assessment report and submitted for assessment to two 1st tier system providers, four global filter manufacturer and two OEM with in-house filtering solutions. Initial feedback is acted upon.

->Manufacturing Feasibility (Task 3.1 3). Main Results: Manufacturing study performed with a leading automotive parts manufacturer, evaluated in detail the manufacturing of the PAI, computed detailed Capex and Opex (costing).

->Find partners accredited to perform emission measurements and validate the solution effectiveness (Task 3.1 4). Main Results: Prepared a detailed test plan and consulted two EU accredited research and certification labs.

->Academic & Industry Workshop (Task 3.1 5). Main Results: Agglomeration workshop performed at an academic research centre (post-doc level) with industry representatives, leading to further commitments from all stakeholders.

->Find prospective customers (Task 3.1 6). Main Results: Initiated one prototyping project targeting a petrol car engine; The retrofitting offering was considered as interesting but insufficiently mainstream.
This feedback led to reassessing and changing our business model.

->Write the business plan and feasibility report (Task 3.1 7). Main Results: Feasibility Report and Business Plan.

Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far)

New environmental challenge:
The latest research findings highlight a major health hazard that is presently unregulated even at the most stringent levels - the volatile Nucleation Mode Nanoparticles. There is increasing evidence that this volatile nanoparticles category (Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosols) is a crucial factor for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and carcinogenic induced health issues . Of particular significance are Increased emissions of genotoxic (PAH) that have been observed in new Gasoline Direct Injection engines

State of the art:
Although a regulation compliant DPF removes the solid particles very efficiently, most of the volatile precursors pass through the filter in a gaseous phase, forming new particles behind the DPF by nucleation . In addition, some volatile material temporarily adsorbed at the soot deposited in the filter, might desorb and leave the filter substrate and form liquid particles downstream in the atmosphere . Technically, the DPF cannot withhold this material nor can the Catalytic converters remove these precursors at temperatures where desorption happens but the catalytic process is not yet kicked on.

How PEMRED can help
Experiments on the PEMRED-PAI made at the Internal Combustion Laboratory of the Ben Gurion University of the Negev show that the introduction of a PAI in the exhaust line reduces downstream nucleation by 75%, supporting the assumption that the PAI agglomerates particulate matter as well as other precursors which would otherwise condensate and nucleate downstream of the exhaust.

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