Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

H2020

FabSurfWAR Report Summary

Project ID: 644971
Funded under: H2020-EU.1.3.3.

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - FabSurfWAR (Design and Fabrication of Functional Surfaces with Controllable Wettability, Adhesion and Reflectivity)

Reporting period: 2015-01-01 to 2016-12-31

Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project

The potential for deliberately created engineered surfaces has not been explored to any notable extent, yet there is strong evidence suggesting that significant gains can be achieved in terms of anti-bacteria, low adhesion and friction, de-icing, and self-cleaning. The project “Design and Fabrication of Functional Surfaces with Controllable Wettability, Adhesion and Reflectivity (FabSurfWAR)” provides staff exchange between the partners of EU and Asia and engenders the development of key enabling techniques for designing and generating micro/nano surface topology with better control of bacterial growth, adhesion, friction and other tribological properties. The potential applications range from surgical tools and biomedical devices to turbine blades and agricultural machines.
The ultimate goal of FabSurfWar is to set up a long-term international and inter-sector collaboration consortium for staff exchanges in research and innovation between nine world-recognised institutions in the cutting-edge research area of micro/nano surface engineering with promising applications in scientific and engineering sectors. The synergistic methodologies achieved by FabsurfWAR will serve as the building blocks of the micro/nano functional surface design, fabrication, measurement, characterisation and scale-up application. Consequently it will position the consortium as a scientific and technological leader in functional surfaces and their potential applications.

To achieve this, the project’s objectives are:
• Development of functional surface modelling and characterisation techniques. This will include micro/nano surface metrology and characterisation, surface modelling and representation methodologies for hierarchy and unitary surfaces.
• Establishment of the correlation between the surface topography and the surface functions. This will explore the relationships between the surface feature and the wettability, adhesion, and reflectivity.
• Development of micro/nano fabrication techniques for functional surfaces. This will include laser-based micro/nano fabrication, Focus Ion Beam (FIB) nano fabrication, micro/nano imprint and surface coating technique, and micro/nano characterisation and experimental testing.
• Validation of the developed FabSurfWAR technologies. This will include: the established modelling and characterisation methodologies for functional surfaces; the design and fabrication techniques of specific functional surfaces in terms of controllable wettability, adhesion, and reflectivity; and the experimental testing and validation of bacterial reduction, anti-adhesion, and better tribological performance in tools and devices.

Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far

All the FabSurfWAR tasks for the period from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2016 described in the proposal have been carried out and successfully completed as planned. The project has developed world-class processes for the design, fabrication, measurement and characterisation of functional surfaces with controllable wettability, adhesion and reflectivity. Scientific progress has been achieved in the following areas:
• Various functional surface modelling and fabrication technologies have been reviewed, and the database for functional surfaces has been set up. Road maps for future controllable functional surface design and fabrication technologies have been established. Surface modelling, characterisation and fabrication technologies have been studied. The correlation between the surface topography and the wettability has been studied. Influences of the pillar shape on the wettability, adhesion and reflectivity have also been explored. (UoW, TJU, CUST)
• Bionic methodologies to generate and represent the functional surfaces have been studied. The functional surfaces exhibited by some soil-burrowing insects for their anti-adhesion/anti-contamination performances have been particularly investigated. In general, the structured metal surfaces can reduce friction by over 10% for tested agricultural tools and devices. (JLU)
• Different advanced laser processing structuring technologies: direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) and ultrafast laser-induced mirco/nano structuring and direct laser structuring were explored. Various types of nano/micro-scaled surface structures/patterns on metallic surfaces were generated by utilizing three different types of lasers: femtosecond laser, nanosecond laser and excimer laser. All these techniques can be used to generate controllable hydrophobicity. (KIT, CUST)
• The cheap and easy ways for making structure surface on fairly large scales have also been investigated. These cover more conventional methodologies from mechanical machining technologies including milling, turning and grinding to Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM). The influence of the machining parameters on the surface topography and further on the wettability have been examined in micro and nano scales. (UoW, TJU)
• The Nanolithography and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)-based nano-fabrication were also utilized to fabricate nanorods, nanopillars, flat nanopatterns of triangles and circles and nanobows on the materials including silicon, SU-8 resist, polymers, nickel and PDMS. (UoB)
• Surface coating and deposition techniques have been applied to produce antimicrobial surface and control wetting via controlling of surface chemistry and topography. Escherichia Coli bacteria were tested on the structured stainless steel surfaces. Zinc oxide films with three types of nanotopographies: needle-like and hexagonal nanorods and flakes, were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis on stainless steel substrates to investigate their photocatalytic and antibacterial properties. The results showed that photocatalytic activity was clearly influenced by the nanotopography. (TUT, UMP)
• AFM is used both as a sensor and as an actuator, for nano-handling of nanoscopic and biological objects. AFM is also used for nanoindentation, material processing and cutting of nano-objects like DNA. (UoW, UOld, CUST)

Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far)

Achievements:
The project has successfully completed all the planned research and implementation tasks. Since the start of the project on 1st January 2015, we have produced:
• Publications: 50 journal papers and 15 conference papers.
• Patents: 4 in UK and 13 in China
The publications have appeared in many leading high-impact journals including ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Mechanics of Composite Materials, IET Nanobiotechnology, Advanced Engineering Materials, Journal of the Mechanical Behaviour of Biomedical materials, Journal of Laser Applications, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, International Journal of Agricultural & Biological Engineering

Exploitation:
The development of functional surfaces has led to commercial exploitation. To-date 17 patent applications have been filed with 4 in the UK and 13 in China.
One of the applications of the functionalized surfaces is in air bearings, where micro surface features are generated to form air films and lift up a shaft to spin freely. The preliminary results show that the functionalised surfaces are very effective in bearing performance. A commercial exploitation plan has been created to facilitate the production of engine turbochargers supported by air bearings, as a result a diesel engine is up to 40% more fuel efficient and produces 50% less CO2 and NOx emissions than a standard one of the same power.

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