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Periodic Report Summary 2 - HIPERCAP (High Performance Capture - HiPerCap)

Project Context and Objectives:
Today, the climate change issue has become a major concern, and is perhaps one of the most severe challenges of our time. There is an urgent need for action in order to stabilise the global warming at 2-3ºC within the 21st century. Man-made CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are found to be the major cause of global warming.
In the context of developing a long-term climate change strategy, the European Council has adopted the international objective of limiting the global average temperature increase to not more than 2 °C above preindustrial levels to limit the adverse effects of climate change (target agreed by the UN in Cancun Summit, in 2010). As a consequence, the following commitments are adopted in order to achieve this target:
• 20% GHG emission reduction within 2020 compared to 1990 emission
• 20% reduction of the EU's energy consumption compared to projections for 2020
• 20% of overall EU energy consumption to be provided by renewable sources by 2020
In December 2007, a communication from the Commission (COM (2007) 723 final) details the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-PLAN), an integrated strategy on how Europe will source, produce, transport and trade energy in the frame of the above commitments.
A number of studies have concluded that Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) should play a major role in the effort to mitigate the effect of CO2 emissions. CCS buys time needed for the transition to sustainable energy systems as it allows for continued use of fossil energy sources without CO2 emissions.
There has in recent years been substantial research on CO2 capture technologies. A number of different process concepts have been suggested and for each concept, there is often a great variation of chemicals and materials that may be employed. At present, it can, however, be very difficult to assess the relative performance and potential of different capture technologies. Claims made concerning the performance and potential of a given technology will often rely on many assumptions, and may not be comparable to numbers reported by others. When claims are made concerning potential of a technology, it is not always clear if thermodynamic and process limitations of the technology are considered and some numbers may be unrealistic.
The HiPerCap project aims to develop novel post-combustion CO2 capture technologies and processes, which are environmentally benign and have high potential to lead to breakthroughs in energy consumption and overall cost. The project includes all main separation technologies for post-combustion CO2 capture; absorption, adsorption and membranes. For each technology, the project is focusing on a chosen set of promising concepts (four for absorption, two for adsorption and two for membranes).
A key focus in HiPerCap is to demonstrate the potential of the various capture technologies. This means showing that all key aspects of a technology are feasible and that the technology can provide a real breakthrough in terms of energy use. Though the materials required for the three types of separation technologies studied in this project are different, a synergy between them is the need for development of feasible process concepts based on a similar set of assumptions. This ensures a fair comparison can be made between the various technologies. In so doing, the results of the assessment will identify the priorities for the future development of these materials.
HiPerCap is completing its objectives through a combination of experimental work and process simulation. Experiments are used to demonstrate key performance indicators and to validate process models and are tailored to each separation technology. Validated process models are used to demonstrate the energy potential of a given technology at industrial scale.

Project Results:
The objectives of the HiPerCap project within the 2nd period (18 months from 1st July 2015 to 31st December 2016) and reference to the various work-packages (WP) have been the following:
1. WP1: Absorption based technologies
Finalize the experimental work related to Enzyme catalysis of CO2 absorption, precipitating solvent systems, strong bicarbonate forming solvents, bio-mimicking systems, and CO2 utilization. Produce all the reports for WP1 and pass all relevant information required for the benchmarking to WP4.
2. WP2: Adsorption based technologies
Evaluate and model two adsorption process configurations for post-combustion CO2 capture: fixed bed and moving bed.
3. WP3: Membrane based technologies
Finalise membrane development and model. Model concepts based on the developed membranes.
4. WP4: Assessment of CO2 capture technologies
Further collect data from WP 1-3 in preparation of assessment of capture technologies. Modelling and simulation at scope 3, 4 and 5 levels for all technologies.
5. WP5: Roadmap for development of CO2 capture technologies
The work in this WP will start in month 40.
6. WP6: Project management
Take care of any changes in the project, follow-up project plans and arrange project meetings including Executive Board meetings.
7. WP7: Dissemination
Update external web-site, disseminate information about the project at relevant international conferences like PCCC-3 (Regina, Canada, September 2015) and GHGT-13 (Lausanne, Switzerland) and start planning of the second workshop.
8. WP8: Collaboration with an Australian partner
This partner in HiPerCap is CSIRO. Their role is to continue participation and contribute with work in WP1 to 3 also in the second period. They will also be in the organizing committee of the second workshop.

Most of the work described above has been done except that since MCI had to shut down their business before the period ended, they could not complete their development and testing of the monoliths as planned. However, they managed to develop some samples, which are now being tested with real flue gas at TNO. This work is for this reason delayed, but it is expected that D2.6 will be issued in month 39 instead of month 36 as planned. Furthermore, due to the MCI closure, it has been decided to merge D2.4 and D2.6 such that some of results from the work by MCI will be covered in deliverable D2.6. 21 deliverables were planned in the period and all of them were unfortunately delayed. However, 18 are delivered and the remaining had a due date in December 2016. One of them is the present report, which necessarily have to wait until the period is finished and two are related to the MCI closure as explained. Also 9 of the 10 planned milestones (3. WP2-Proof of concept for low temperature solid sorbents under post-combustion capture conditions 2. WP1-Experimental data, modelling and simulation for process assessment in WP4, 4. WP2-Development of high efficient thermal swing adsorption process for post-combustion capture, 6. WP2-Production of the necessary data for process assessment in WP4, 7. WP2- Production of model information for process assessment in WP4) 8. WP3- Hybrid coated membranes are prepared, characterized and tested, 9. WP3- Separation performance tested, operation parameters optimized for contained supported liquid membrane, 10. Separation performance tested, operation parameters optimized for incorporation of ionic liquids into extra high permeability nanoporous glassy polymers, 11. Models for membrane separation process, for hybrid membranes and ionic liquids) were reached within the period. The remaining milestone (5. WP2-Monolithic structures with enhanced CO2 adsorption performance and thermal conductivity) is related to Deliverable D2.4 (which will be merged with D2.6).

Potential Impact:
The expected final results will be in line with the objectives of the project:

• Develop CO2 capture processes with the aim of reducing the total efficiency penalty by 25% compared to state-of-the-art capture technology demonstrated in the EU project CESAR and deliver proof-of-concepts for each technology.
• Improve the process designs to reduce capital and operating costs considering aspects such as environmental impact, operability and flexibility, size of equipment, and choice of materials.
• Assessment of new and emerging technologies and processes for identification/selection of the two most promising breakthrough capture processes.
• Establish a technological roadmap for the further development of the two selected breakthrough capture processes.

With these results we will ensure a significant reduction of the efficiency penalty of CO2 capture for power plants and in a substantial decrease of the cost of capture. This would allow accelerating the commercial deployment of large scale near zero emission power generation technology based on CCS.
The project will also have a focused effort on determining the relative potential of different capture technologies for a given exhaust gas. The results from this assessment will be of value for future research efforts within CO2 capture and for the industrial application of CCS.

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