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Final Report Summary - TRANSFORM-EO (Towards the opeRAtioNal Surface Fluxes and sOil Moisture Retrievals from Earth Observation data)

The overall objective of TRANSFORM-EO research was to develop a fundamental understanding of the ability of a remote sensing methodology named the “triangle” technique in deriving latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat fluxes LE/H fluxes, as well as of surface moisture content (SMC), and to provide a first investigation of the ability of this technique in deriving the above parameters when used with remote sensors which are planned to be launched by Space Agencies in the coming years. This specific technique has already been identified from previous works as one able to move forward on operational implementation. The lack of knowledge related to different aspects of this approach until the time when this research project was started was leading to direct problems and uncertainties when predicting the energy fluxes and SMC, making indispensable the present study. Thus, the proposed research greatly assisted the better understanding, from a remote sensing point of view, physical processes between the different components of the Earth system, a key direction identified for future research by the scientific community.
The research outcomes of the project are provided in detail in the +15 research papers published to international journals, 4 book chapters and +25 conference contributions to international conferences which were produced (see project web site here: A detail list of the publications is provided at the bottom of this report. In addition, this work resulted to developing a new open access software tool named Seviri PrePro ( and developing further another one, specifically a land biosphere model named SimSphere ( , also provided as open source.

More details on the TRASNFORM-EO project outputs can be found at the project web site is

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United Kingdom


Life Sciences
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