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LOGIMATIC Report Summary

Project ID: 687534
Funded under: H2020-EU.2.1.6.

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - LOGIMATIC (Tight integration of EGNSS and on-board sensors for port vehicle automation)

Reporting period: 2016-03-01 to 2017-08-31

Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project

Total annual volumne of container shipping in seaborne trade is continuously growing since the 80's. This increase will push container terminals to work consistently above the optimum thresholds for yard occupancy and utilization, increasing congestion and reducing efficiency. The usual way for ports to cope with this increasing demand is to expand the port in the original site. However, there is scarcity of land available in densely populated urban areas and the investment costs associated are high.This fact is causing that container terminals have congestion and capacity problems. Therefore, port managers are searching for more efficient and costeffective means in the handling of containers while still trying to introduce innovative technical solutions. Container handling equipment automation is an innovative technological solution that contributes not only to improve the utilization rate of equipment and to reduce operating costs, but also greatly improve efficiency of terminals. LOGIMATIC proposes an ad-hoc advanced location and navigation solution to enable the automation of existing port vehicles with a significantly lower cost. The project will develop and demonstrate an innovative location and navigation solution for the automation of the operations of straddle carriers in container terminals which is robust to spoofing and jamming attacks and is able to interoperate with existing Terminal Operating Systems through a GIS-based central control interface. The exploitation of the results of the project will improve productivity by increasing operational efficiency, increasing task accuracy, reducing errors and allowing faster cycle times in port operations. Therefore, the overall cost for port management will be reduced, increasing European ports competitiveness. Mid-size ports will increase their operational capacities without increasing worker strain and stress and therefore reducing safety incidents. The exploitation of the results will potentially create new jobs by requiring higher-skilled job profiles in the port operations staff.

Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far

The work performed and the main results achieved during the first half of the project are the following:
- Development of an advanced automated localization and navigation solution: Revision of the state of the art in GNSS was performed and the GNSS components that best suits LOGIMATIC approach were selected. The location of the sensors in the vehicle was defined taking into account the expected GNSS/local sensor integration approach. The self-localization strategy was defined based on simultaneous and localization and mapping algorithms complementing the selected GNSS solution. The approach for trajectory planning at yard and vehicle level was defined as well as the interfaces and data exchange with the GIS.
- Implementation of a GIS-based central control module: Development of the first prototype of the central management system. The prototype provides vehicle's visualization on the container yard map in a GIS environment and is interfaced to a planning module in charge of container movements assignment and routing. The system already interfaces to existing TOS while the final version foresees the development of a well-defined web service to enable the interoperability with other Terminal Operating System providers.
- Implementation of security mechanism against cyber-attacks: Provision of a comprehensive risk assessment performed for the project port environment (intermodal terminal with automated port vehicle), identifying assets and infrastructure to be protected related to GNSS and IT elements over the potential threats, weaknesses and vulnerabilities present and defining potential countermeasures. Main potential attack scenarios have been defined. The technical approach for the detection of signal anomalies and intentional attacks was also defined and the architecture for the cyber-security module. It will be based on a software-defined radio (SDR) receiver on which will be implemented integrity check algorithms. The following step of hardware scouting and procurement was also performed. In support to the development, a working simulation environment was designed and defined for debugging and progressive testing purposes.

Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far)

The progress beyond the stat of the art in the expected results is defined as follows:

- Precise GNSS is commercially available and has become an enabler for plenty of new applications and research. However, it faces certain limitations when applied in challenging realistic scenarios. The signal in port yards are highly affected and degraded due to multi-path and occlusion. The levels of accuracy required for interaction with the port environments calls for additional localization means that support and complement the localization accuracy of GNSS systems. On the other hand, sensor-based localization such as visual odometry and laser SLAM have been demonstrated with reasonable good performance in research projects and there have already been attempts to fuse GNSS and inertial mesurements for robotics applications in controlled scenarios. LOGIMATIC implements a tight integration of GNSS and in-vehicle mounted sensors to provide an assured real time localization to enable autonomous driving of port vehicles in realistic scenarios. The fusion of multiple sensors aims at increasing the Required Navigation Performance (RPN) indicators and provide the system with a continuously available and reliable navigation solution.

- One of the key issues underlying to the need of having a reliable solution is the provision of not only real-time and accurate information but also a certain level of security to ensure that the signal will not be spoofed and/or corrupted. In particular, the requirement of a measure that indicates with what level of confidence a navigation information may be used constitutes a key factor for the impact effectiveness of projects highly based on positioning system reliability like LOGIMATIC and at the same time an effective way to fully exploit the strength of the applications and services offered by GALILEO. LOGIMATIC uses mathematical approaches for detecting and reducing interference and/or trajectory disturbances by the combined use of multiple GNSS signals and integrity information. In such way, the space-time cross-correlation is exploited for assessing signal coherency, trust and reliability of signal parameters.

- Existing TOS solutions handle, among other functionalities, the overall assignment of container movement orders to Container Handling Equipment (CHE) and monitor the execution of the order. The operations are performed based on specific plans for container movements as defined through Yard stacking plan modules of a TOS. Different approaches are followed by TOS solutions for container movement assignments and most of them do not use the localization of the vehicle as a key driver for planning due to the lack of information. LOGIMATIC allows for improved planning of vehicles' movements within the yard and an overall monitoring of yard logistics (real-time scheduling and execution level) by developing a GIS-based solution that has welldefined interfaces to existing TOS in order to get all needed information and which in turn handles all needed routing of the CHE to ensure optimized path planning while at the same time monitoring the execution of the assignment.

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