Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS


Knocky Report Summary

Project ID: 691232
Funded under: H2020-EU.1.3.3.

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - Knocky (Knock prevention and increase of reliability and efficiency of high power gaseous internal combustion engines)

Reporting period: 2015-12-01 to 2017-11-30

Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project

Academic and commercial R&D centres herein undertake the investigation of the reduction of the abnormal combustion phenomena of knock in internal combustion engines. Combustion knock limits the efficiency of the engine and deteriorates engine performance while simultaneously contributing to engine destruction, thus it crucially reduces engine reliability. Reducing or eliminating combustion knock increases durability and also engine efficiency, hence reducing CO2 emissions.
The inter-sectoral research encompassed in this proposal concerns high-power stationary engines fuelled with gaseous fuels (biogas, natural gas, coke gas) working in combined heat and power (CHP) systems.
As result of the synergies and breadth of expertise, a resultant acceleration in research finding is expected with complementary investigation conducted within both the companies (Wartsila, AVL, Motortech) and universities involved that finally should result in successfully solving the related challenges.

Importance to society
Creation amongst the project participants of a strong science-engineering group is planned. It will initiate academic-industry based cluster with the aim to extend collaboration in the field of power and combustion engines.
Hence, both local and global societies should benefit from access to knowledge that leads to well-educated people. Participation in Researcher's Nights is one of the measures taken in this case.
By solving scientific and technoological problems dealing with the combustion knock, the engine will work more efficiently and more reliably.
Hence, the engine consumes less fuel, what implies to the following:
- it generates more power, hence reduces risk of energy defficiency
- and emits less toxic pollutants as well as CO2,
Therefore, it contributes to reduce impact of power generation by gas fueled engines on natural environment, so increases comfort of living for people.

The overall Objectives
The main project objectives are as follows:
1) to obtain a synergy and extended interaction by joining several scientific and engineering disciplines to investigate the attributes and causality associated with abnormal combustion in the internal combustion piston engine.
2) Specific technological objectives of the project are:
to recognize details associated with combustion knock,
to determine methods for knock prediction and reduction,
3) to stimulate collaboration between industry and academic entities.

Other objectives:
to disseminate results of collaboratively and mutually conducted works,
to disseminate the know-how, worked out within the project frame work,
to create amongst the project participants a strong science-engineering group.
to provide networking collaboration between academic and industrial entities.

Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far

The following key-leading research works have been taken:
- tests on combustion of various fuels in the SI engine at various working conditions
- chemical analysis of fuels applied to IC engines,
- 3D CFD AVL FIRE modeling – spark discharge and ignition phase
- 3D CFD FOAM modeling air-gas mixture preparation
- Thermo-chemical and thermodynamic analysis of knock occurrence in the SI engine - 0D modeling
- Digital signal processing (DSP) and analysis of combustion pressure plots
- Statistical analysis of engine combustion events.

Main Results
WP 1
3D-CFD simulation of flame propagation and end-gas pre-reactions was done.
On knock onset detection from a model data was collected. Computational model was created.
RANS and LES modelling approaches and validation of simulation results are completed.
Knocking combustion of gaseous fuels in RCM was measured and modelled.
The developed ignition model validation was done.

WP 2
Engine indicating – in-cylinder pressure data acquisition was completed. Results from engine indicating were used to build a data base, which is required for knock model calibration.
Updating the Single Cylinder BOOST Model, Measurement Matrix Status, Measurement Matrix Update, Creation & Parametrization of the 4-Cylinder Engine Model.
Exhaust toxic emissions and PM measurements from the engine working at various loads and combustion related parameters were recorded and analyzed.
Combustion tests were extended with additional parameters: variable valve timing and overexpanded cycle as well as additional tests on potential anti-knock additives to fuels (glycerol, water, aromatic hydrocarbons etc.) were also conducted.

WP 3
Wavelet transform for combustion in-cylinder pressure was worked out.
Determining pressure derivatives was completed.
Calculation of combustion parameters was completed.
Development of a model of large 4-stroke engines: calibration of large system model.

WP4 Flame visualization.
Several images of flame development were taken as training works with optical systems for flame recording. Flame recording with a fast speed video cameras were conducted.

WP5 Knock reduction measures.
Due to its iterative nature it is continuously done in a feeedback with other tasks. The first stage of the technology testing is done on single stroke engine (RCM- rapid compression machine).
The training process is executed through the research activities. The researchers involved in the tests already benefited by extending their knowledge on new engine technologies and learing R&D process and procedures applied in the industry.

WP6 Dissemination.
Two webinars were organized as described in Deliverables D.6.1 and D.6.2.
The workshop in Vaasa and the seminar in Celle were realized.
The web page was built.
5 papers were published as showed further. All papers are published with open access option.
Dissemination takes place through various mass-media.

In the WP7 Management. The kick-off meeting, 2 mid-term meetings and 2 meetings trough webinars were done.

Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far)

Progress beyond state-of-the-art is in the following fields:
- characterization of knock onset in the gas fueled spark ignited engine,
- working out knock prediction and reduction methods.
By now, a new model for knock occurrence has been worked out. It is implemented in the commercial AVL FIRE software for modelling engine combustion phenomenon and work cycles. This model is now tested.
Except expected results concerning knock prediction and reduction methods there are other potentially implemented into practice results, which deal with addition of glycerol as anti-knock agent to liquid fuels, but this issue needs further intensive work and credible results will be obtained at the end of project.
Expected results (they are focused on results expected to be achieved with potential for exploitation):
- in AVL - development in the electrical discharge model and the ignition model,
- in Wartsila – implementing Combustion Research Unit (CRU) and Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) to work on various fuels, working out and implementing computer codes into CRU and RCM to control combustion process, The RCM experimental work and AVL Boost model are now being implemented,
- in MOTORTECH – working on air-gas premixing problems in gas mixing units.
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