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H2020

InductICE Report Summary

Project ID: 717175
Funded under: H2020-EU.3.4.5.4.

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - InductICE (Efficient, Modular and LigthWeight Electromagnetic Induction Based Ice Protection System)

Reporting period: 2016-07-01 to 2017-12-31

Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project

Heating by electromagnetic induction is known as a very fast and efficient method for heating metallic surfaces, with very good controllability of the delivered power as well as for the lack of direct contact between the heated and the heating element. Induction heating is currently used in several industrial applications due to their advantages in efficiency, heating speed, low maintenance, safety and an accurate control. The aim is to achieve these clear advantages in the development of a novel de-icing system for air transport. Direct and fast action of inductive systems eliminate the ice created in very critical areas of aircraft, and allow better use of on-board resources, improving efficiency and reducing power demand of the aircraft.
INDUCTICE project will contribute to achieve the major expectations from a more/all electrical aircraft architecture. In the framework of the Electrical Aircraft Airframe technologies, the low power electrical ice protection system to be developed in the project will include a high degree of structural integration in order to minimize weight while maximizing system efficiency.
Efficiency is one of the main objectives in order to make a better use of aircraft on-board resources. Thus one of the main objectives of the induction based ice-protection system to be developed in this project is to achieve at least a 95% heating efficiency.
In addition to efficiency, ice-protection system speed is essential in order to act on time and accurately without excessive on-board system consumption. Therefore, another one of the objectives of this project is to improve the speed, while providing a precise and targeted control of the generated heat facing the drawbacks of current on-board ice-protection systems. Finally, the weight of the whole solution must be minimized, essential in on-board aircraft systems. The final objective is to reach an ice-protection system with at least the same weight as current on-board ice-protection systems or on the contrary, the sum of its weight and its impact on on-board resources due to its high heating efficiency must be at least equal to current ice-protection solutions.

Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far

Regarding the heating elements the equivalent resistance depending on the thickness of the mesh layer was studied for different materials. The maximum equivalent resistance value at a specific varying magnetic field frequency, depends on the layer thickness and therefore, there is a value that optimizes this resistance.
Regarding heated elements some additional specimens were tested in 2017. This specimens were composed with different number of metallic layers, even different numbers of horizontal and vertical strips.
Additionally the Topic Manager carried out direct lightning impact tests on a panel with the proposed heated part integrated in the structure with positive results in terms of lightning impact and heating capability after impact.
Regarding the heating elements, i.e. the coils, finite element simulations were carried out with various coil configurations. Moreover the system was modelled numerically from an electrical point of view, in order to determine the impact of each solution with respect to the power electronics converter.
Several manufacturing materials were tested in order to find the appropriate one for the coil demonstrator.
Regarding the power electronics converter, initially a study regarding the best semiconductor solution was carried out.
In order to compare a large number of coil configurations and their impact on the power electronics a parametrized model has been developed in MATLAB.
This model estimates the weight and distribution of the power electronics components within a rectangular converter housing.
Apart from the estimation of the converter weight electrical simulations have been carried out in order to determine the operation of the ice-protection system.
The parameters of the model are estimated, regarding the coils, from the finite element simulation software. This parameters are afterwards introduced in a cross-coupled electrical model.

Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far)

Regarding the progress beyond the state of the art of Electromagnetic Induction Heating Systems prior art (US Pat. No. 2008/0251642) locates the coils in the leading edge surface without any geometrical superposition neither any time based shifting of the induction currents. The configuration introduced in the patent, lacks of a uniform heat distribution. In addition the operating frequency of the solution is kept below 100kHz which will turn into a heavy ice protection solution.
In the solution proposed in this proposal, a geometrical superposition of coils is proposed with a time shifting induction current solution, in order to reach a uniform current distribution in the shedding areas. Moreover, due to the advances carried out in semiconductor technologies the operation frequency is increased providing a smaller induction based solution.

The ice-protection system based on electromagnetic induction presented in this proposal is an innovative electrical ice protection system that will enable to encounter a more/all electric aircraft concept. By the elimination of one or more hydraulic and pneumatic system, the major expectations from a More/All Electrical Aircraft architecture are, among others:
• To Save Weight And Contributes To Less Fuel Consumption, And Then Less Contaminant Emissions;
• To Remove Non Environmental Friendly Fluids From The Aircraft
• Simplify The Architecture And Improve The Reliability And Maintainability
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