Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

Final Report Summary - SERVOWOOD (Improved Service Life Prediction and Test Capability for Wood Coatings)

Executive Summary:
The essence of the SERVOWOOD project was to study the degradation of coatings that results from the exposure to different dosages of factors like water, temperature and sunlight with a view to predicting their service life under different conditions. Coating systems were exposed under both laboratory and natural weathering conditions which were quantified in terms of the applied or incident dosage.
From a total of 3800 panels of coated wood the responses were evaluated after these panels had been submitted to a variety of typical weather parameters. The resulting responses, including changes in appearance and mechanical properties, were observed and linked through a ‘factor’ model to the period of time to reach a defined limit state where maintenance would be required according to the expectations of the customer. The limit state chose for the model was cracking, but the approach would work equally well for other responses to exposure such as colour change gloss loss or mould growth.
In many exterior building components wood is for many consumers the preferred choice as a matter of taste, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource. To extend the life-time and use of wood in outdoor conditions it is typically coated. To maintain the appearance and protective nature of the coating it needs several recoats before the wooden article reaches the end of its life time. There are however other substrates that could fulfil the same function in outdoor use. If window frames are taken there is aluminium with an anodized-layer or a layer of powder-coating or full PVC frames (no additional coating). These alternatives have a lower demand for maintenance. A fair comparison of the sustainability of the different substrates with their typical surface protections can only be made via a full Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) including all the parameters (type of wood; type of coating; durability of the coating; maintenance intervals etc.) for the substrate in its use phase and for its end of life. An overall benefit of this project has been that the outcomes will contribute to defining the parameters that can be used for such LCAs.

A major outcome of the project is input into European Standards for exterior wood coatings (the EN 927 series). In addition various stakeholders in the supply chain were identified by assessing if they would be getting something new in fulfilling their job as a result of the project. The key conclusions for the four main stakeholder groups were:-

• Wooden window frame manufacturer
o An improved product proposition to the market
▪ Extended service life with reduced and more predictable maintenance
• Architect
▪ greater confidence in prescribing a type of wood
• able to take the local climate and microclimate into consideration
• Paint manufacturer
o a set of new tools by which he can, in a shorter timeframe, predict the service life of his coating system
▪ thus more rapid development
▪ confident guarantee of performance
• Maintenance decision maker / building owner
o better prediction of maintenance intervals
o Lower costs for inspections and the real maintenance (in which scaffolding is often the cost driver)
Project Context and Objectives:
To enhance the appearance and extend the life-time and use of wood joinery (windows, doors, cladding etc.) it is typically coated with paint, varnish or stain. The two latter are often preferred since they enhance the natural appearance of wood; however their transparent nature does not protect from the damaging effects of UV light as effectively as opaque paints. However all coatings have a finite life and will at some stage require maintenance which is costly and therefore needs to be kept to a minimum. There is a need in Europe to maximise the use of timber as a sustainable resource and in common with all materials coated wood must maximise its service life. However this raises a major challenge. The best wood coatings already last 7-10 years, and reports of even 28 years have been recorded. Coatings manufacturers constantly have to re-formulate their products in response to environmental legislation and such changes can easily affect durability. Products must be launched before they have been fully tested for long periods under all conditions, and this constitutes a commercial risk. This situation leads to the strategic objectives of the SERVOWOOD project which is to develop and establish European Standards that will facilitate the prediction of service life for exterior wood coatings across different climatic zones, and to significantly improve the capability of short term laboratory tests, including “accelerated weathering” to predict behaviour under field conditions. To this end a number of primary objectives were defined:-
• Advance the knowledge of the degradation mechanisms of wood coatings under various exposure conditions (natural and laboratory) such that a model could be derived relating dosage inputs to damage response.
• Quantify the damage (response) in terms of metrics that could be measured using analytical methods such as FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy.
• Quantify dosage factors (including wavelength and intensity of light, temperature, time of wetness and humidity with appropriate data logging.
• Establish a procedure to determine the ‘effective’, as opposed to incident dosage.
• Generate a comprehensive understanding of how the cumulative dosage factors affect the damage response, and translate this into predictive models.
• Determine of the maximum threshold dosages that can be used without introducing ‘unnatural’ degradation pathways.
• Quantify the interaction of species-dependent wood substrate variables with the exposure parameters.
These strategic scientific objectives were underpinned with the tactical need to develop investigative techniques and to carry out various time series of coatings exposed to laboratory and exterior conditions. Variability of dose-response is a known characteristic of wood substrates and a core experiment was to determine test precision and input this information into European Standards, in particular EN 927-6.

The project followed a Work Package structure which defines a framework to contextualise the work performed. The Work Packages relationships are shown in the following diagram.

A phased experimental plan was designed and implemented through work pages WP1, WP2 and WP3. It involved 52 different ‘model’ coating systems with known formulation components and expected performance characteristics. Statistical designs were based upon two levels of coating film thickness and 5 wood substrates including the softwood and hardwood species widely used in Europe. The replicated panels were exposed at 5 outdoor sites and in various laboratory UV exposure devices. In addition to the industry standard practice of exposing exterior panels at 45ᴼ facing south, a special rig was built with 9 facets at 45ᴼ and 90ᴼ facing N, S, E. W, and one horizontal face. This enabled the simultaneous variation of natural weathering dosage.
Both WP2 and WP3 required regular monitoring of macro properties such as colour change, gloss loss and other physical changes. For exterior weathering the development of fungal growth was also recorded. Data logging was used to continually monitor the input doses of temperature, irradiance and time of wetness. The overall experimental plan required the preparation of ~4000 test panels and a detailed panel identification schema to maintain track of the data for subsequent analysis. (see WP structure)

In WP4 the characterisation of the response was extended with a number of characterisation techniques including IR Spectroscopy; UV-Vis spectroscopy; Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. Mechanical properties using tensile and pendulum tests were also recorded.

WP5 investigated the ways in which the input dosage might be translated to an effective dose for the purposes of service life modelling. This requires measuring stress factors, where possible, directly on the exposed panel surface (or in the 45° plane of exposure) as 'incident' dose, and combine it with relevant material properties (e.g. spectral absorbance, water permeability) into an effective dose. For example the temperature of a test panel will depend upon its colour as well as the ambient temperature and incident radiation.

WP6 documents the basic information and concepts regarding the collection and processing of experimental data and the strategy for the subsequent data analysis and model development. Finally in WP7 the proposed model was appraised and tested against the appearance of real buildings.

More detail of the work performed is found in the main section of this report, and in the many deliverable reports which have been tabled during the course of the project.

The main results can be summarised as:

• Exposure analysis of multivariate accelerated photo-degradation studies of panels, both field and laboratory based on a variety of wood species.
• Quantification of coating damage using a broad range of metrics and techniques, including mechanical properties, glass transition temperature (Tg) and spectroscopy.
• Compilation of a large data set of exposure data available for the project and future analysis
• Development of new multi-faceted exposure rig (MFER) developed to enable simultaneous dosage information from a range of natural weathering exposures.
• Determination of precision data for the existing artificial weathering testing protocol in EN 927-6 and a presentation of other findings relevant to EU Standards development to TC139/WG2.
• Development of a moisture sensor to aid building maintenance strategy.
• Greater understanding of the influence of wood species on coating performance.
• Development of a model for predicting colour change of larch and spruce wood coated with semi-transparent systems including the application of maintenance coats.
• Development of a factor based quantitative model for the service life prediction of coated wood.

The project has made a significant contribution to our understanding of the factors than cause coating degradation and also to defining the parameters that can be used for Life Cycle Analysis. There are a number of specific benefits that are of interest to the SME’s in the consortium and would be of potential value to the wood coating supply chain.
• Improved Precision for durability standards
• Greater Confidence in Guarantees, Warranties, and Accreditation for long term performance (reduced risk)
• Clearer guidelines on maintenance scheduling
• Understanding of how coating systems will perform in different locations (climatic zones)
• Account for within and between wood species influence on service life
• Protect market share of coated wood products (through longer life products)
• Speed up development of new products (e.g. in response to legislation)
• Input into the currently on-going EU Pilot project for the Product Environmental Footprint of paints, where these wood coatings are included.

Impact on European Standards

Input and support for European Standards was the major factor behind the initiation of the Servowood project. Benefits were discussed at the 52nd meeting of CEN TC139/WG2 in Delft on 14th March 2017. The areas of impact include:
• Precision statement for EN 927-6
• Better definition of fungal growth criteria
• New test methods and techniques for quantifying exposure damage
• Better information on the role of wood species on coating performance
• Use of moisture indicate to support permeability measurements
• Information on the effect of building orientation on coating degradation rate and mechanism
• Factor model approach to service life prediction.
Project Results:
The SERVOWOOD project was primarily aimed at addressing the short-comings in predicting service life. It has looked at developing and establishing European Standards (EN) that will facilitate the prediction of service (SLP) life for exterior wood coatings across different climatic zones and to improve the capability of short term laboratory tests, including artificial weathering, to predict ‘real life’ exposure. In this project a phased experimental plan was designed. It involved 52 different model coating systems with known formulation and expected performance, two levels of film thickness and 5 wood substrates including the softwood and hardwood species most used in Europe. The replicated panels were exposed at 5 outdoor sites and in laboratory UV exposure devices. The data from these exposures enabled detailed comparison of exposure dose and coating response and was used in the model development.

The prediction model (see fig. 1: General schematic of the ISO 15686 factor method adapted for coated wood)
A major result of the SERVOWOOD project is a concept for an improved service life prediction using an adapted factor model based on ISO 15686-8. In this approach, an estimated reference service life is adjusted by a set of 'modifying' factors, which quantify the changes relative to the reference conditions (Fig. 1). An important basis for this is a 'reference service life', which has to be estimated with the aid of long term practical experience or - long term weathering trials. The modifying factors were derived from dose-response relationships based on experimental data as well as knowledge from earlier projects and in literature. Moreover, the consortium was successful in defining a relevant limit state for a wood coating that indicates the end of its service life. It was agreed to focus this limit state on the degree of cracking, which requires the application of a maintenance coat, but without the need of removing the original coating. Purely aesthetical changes such as colour and gloss are not included. Within the project duration, the model was implemented in a prototype version based on a spreadsheet user interface (Fig. 1). It was validated by comparing its predictions with the results of inspections of real buildings all over Europe. However, there are still some limitations mainly due to limited duration of weathering experiments within the project.

User interface of the prototype of the SERVOWOOD SLP Factor Model calculation tool based on MS Excel Spread sheet (see fig.).

Another achievement of the project was the development of a model for predicting colour change of larch and spruce wood coated with semi-transparent systems including the application of maintenance coats (Fig. 2). This can be used to illustrate for the customer the colour of a wood component that will eventually occur over longer service life depending on the colour of the coating materials used.

Dosage variations in natural weathering.
To study variations in dosage of weathering impacts as they are present at the different sides and facades of every house, a multifaceted exposure rig (MFER) for outdoor weathering was designed that allows for simultaneous exposure of coated panels in nine different directions, vertically and 45° inclined in each compass direction and horizontally on top of the rig (Fig. 3). Three of these rigs were additionally equipped with either a shower spray or a heating system, or a combination of both in order to regulate the dosage of moisture and heat in addition to the effect of compass orientation during natural weathering exposure.

On these rigs numerous differences in coating durability were observed with fastest changes on the horizontal face, followed by the 45° inclined faces oriented towards south and west, but mould growth was more pronounced on north facing panels. The least changes were found on panels oriented vertically. There were significant differences between the four MFER conditions on the pattern of breakdown, where wet conditions led to more intensive microbial growth (Fig. 4). The behaviour describes in a very good manner the variations in coating degradation that can occur on the different facades of a house and for different inclination of wooden components and is an important background of the SLP model. Because the duration of this natural weathering exposure was relatively short, results with cracking of coatings were obtained preliminary with unpigmented coating systems. Pigmented systems showed smaller changes in cracking but measurable differences in colour and gloss. It is planned to continue these trials in order to further improve the model with additional data.

It was concluded that the relative performance of coating systems exposed to natural weathering is very much influenced by factors such as orientation and whilst this is already qualitatively known systematic exposure on the MFER gives more quantitative data and enables some interpretation of how the dosage from sunlight is modulated in real life exposure. The MFER demonstrated a wider range of natural weathering behaviours than normal 45°weathering racks. It has the potential to estimate some dosage factors used to modify 'reference service life'. The application of additional heat and/or water caused changes in coating response which may be compared to other exposure climates. The effect of water rather than heat was greater on both film degradation and biological activity including mould growth. The data from the MFER will provide useful input to EN 927-1 which sets out to explain the effect of climate and orientation on coating performance. The data also provides additional possibilities for explaining the relationship between artificial and natural exposure in terms of dose-response. The drier conditions of artificial exposure are unlikely to predict all types of natural weathering behaviours.

Methods to reveal early failure.
Several physical and chemical instigative techniques were applied to characterise changes in chemical composition and mechanical properties of coating films during exposure. These enabled the study of early changes in chemical and physical properties before they became visible as coating failures and to enable the degradation rate related to dosage factors to be investigated in more depth. Furthermore, the influence of formulation components such as UV protection (UV-absorbers, HALS), pigments, fillers and different binders was quantified using these methods. The non-destructive pendulum hardness test gives evidence on the relationship between film mechanics such as elastic modulus and cracking development. This test is easy to do and can be done on coatings directly applied on wood without requiring free films that can be difficult or impossible to make with some coatings. It has been shown that all coatings exposed to ageing display an increase in hardness more or less pronounced depending on coating formulation. Hardness is related to the plastic flow stress of the coating and will reflect the elastic (Young’s) modulus. The higher the increase the more likely cracking will occur. Coatings with a Persoz pendulum hardness lower than around 60 seconds were found to show better performance.
Tensile tests on free films (strips) have been performed at three temperatures chosen to cover the range of temperatures encountered by coatings during their service life. The work has shown that a slow speed test is recommended for tensile tests to determine the ductile or brittle behaviour of the binder used (Fig. 5). Such a speed is also required to determine the elastic modulus of coatings with accuracy. Coatings with ductile properties on the whole range of temperature have better cracking resistance. The influence of coating formulation on elastic modulus and strain at break has been demonstrated. Depending on pigment and filler quantity a dramatic loss in the mechanical properties of coatings may occur which consequently leads to severe cracking during weathering. The higher the pigment volume concentration (PVC) the higher the elastic modulus and the lower the strain at break and therefore the higher the cracking density.

A correlation was found between Persoz hardness and elastic modulus. This means that the Persoz pendulum is an easy tool for coating producers for a first estimation of the elastic modulus. The best performing coatings had an elastic modulus lower than 400 MPa (at room temperature) and a strain at break higher than 30% (at room temperature). Selecting a coating based on elongation at break only may lead to wrong selection: elastic modulus also has to be taken into account. No correlation was found between elastic modulus and strain at break, nor between tensile strength and strain at break. The influence of the tensile strength on resistance to weathering was not clear.

This work provides an input for CEN/TC139/WG2 for a Technical Specification (CEN-TS) on tensile properties for wood coatings which is currently under development.

Spectroscopic techniques (UV-VIS and IR) before and after a weathering trial could clarify some evidences of the coating decay in terms of chemical changes giving also important information about the effects of coating formulation. The study on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and on the elastic modulus carried out by using the thermal analysis techniques (DSC and DMA) identified them as important tools to follow and understand the chemical and physical modifications occurring in the coating films in consequences to the weathering phenomena (Fig. 6). Such tools can already be used to ‘measure’ the effects of additives like UV absorbers or HALS and to define some minimum requirements for the coating materials themselves.

The investigations revealed that the chemical and physical modifications induced by EN 927-6 on coating films are different from those associated to natural weathering test (EN 927-3). The different chemical and physical paths produce, in any case, the same visual degradation effects, like cracking, flaking and chalking. Consequently, acceleration factors based on properties visually assessed (e.g. cracking) can be empirically established (e.g. for quality control purposes), bearing in mind that every change of the coating components could determine a different variation of the physical and chemical “degradation paths” of the two weathering methods. In conclusion, an empirical correlation between artificial and natural weathering tests based on visual assessment shall be individually evaluated, in principle, for every coating formulation. An investigation of different artificial weathering methods able to reproduce similar weathering paths in terms of chemical and physical phenomena deriving from natural weathering is strongly suggested in order to contribute to the objective and scientific growth of this sector.

How long is it wet?
Many panels were equipped with a series of special sensors to investigate the reaction of coated wood at different dosages of natural and artificial weathering. Logging data in short measurement intervals was beneficial to follow the integrity of the coatings between the intervals of visual inspections. In particular measurements of wood moisture content at the wood-coating-interface with a newly developed sensor (Fig. 7) turned out to be an excellent tool to reveal the need for maintenance of a wood coating. When the first cracks in the coating caused a loss of its protective function against moisture, higher fluctuations of wood moisture content at the interphase were observed. This finding can be the basis to develop electronic systems to indicate the need for maintenance. Within the project it was a powerful tool to gain information on coating durability from continuous in-situ measurements. New sensors to measure time of wetness directly at coated wood surfaces were developed and successfully validated with a commercial time of wetness sensor beside the panels. However, it was not possible to measure an influence of the colour and water permeability of coatings on the time of wetness in a standard weathering trial 45° towards south. These sensors would have potential for research on dew formation on cladding surfaces of buildings with efficient heat insulation of the exterior walls.

Fungal Growth
Wetness on coated panel surfaces promotes fungal growth (under exterior conditions) which was studied in detail with the different sets of samples in the experimental plan. Fungal growth mainly consisted in blue stain development. Results clearly showed that a lower fungal growth was observed on pigmented coatings compared to clear ones. Despite a higher amount of biocide in the clear solvent borne coating it was more susceptible to blue stain than the pigmented recipe. In the waterborne coatings, the amount of biocide was the same whether the coating was pigmented or not. However, the pigmented waterborne coating was less prone to blue stain development. After 12 months of exposure the area affected by blue stain was the same whether the back side of the samples was sealed or not. The development of blue stain was not necessarily linked to cracking development.

Tests on different wood species have shown that blue stain growth was lower for coatings applied on larch and meranti due to different moisture dynamics. The exposure using the MFER has shown that the worst cases (high area and high intensity of blue stain) were for samples with the clear coating exposed to north at 45° and at the top of the MFER. For such exposures results were similar between the 2 and 3 coats application.

Among all the tested sets, results had the same trends: pigmented coatings were less affected by blue stain fungi than clear coatings. The presence of pigments could explain this observation with several hypotheses:
- Pigments on the surface of wood samples lead to a higher surface temperature and therefore to a lower humidity at the wood surface. This lower humidity leads to a lower fungal development;
- Pigments contain iron. Iron could have a biocidal effect on blue stain fungi. This biocidal effect was already demonstrated on bacterial and fungal conidia;
- Surface acidity may be different for clear and pigmented surfaces.

This work package of the SERVOWOOD project has shown different interpretations of mould growth amongst the partners. When EN 927-3 is revised the wording ‘mould growth’ used in the standard should be discussed and completed (Fig. 8). Mould growth includes surface moulds (reversible) and blue stain mould fungi (irreversible discolouration). Surface moulds are washable and can be removed from the coating. Discolouring mould fungi develop both at the top surface and in the coating film. Surface moulds do not degrade coatings whereas the hyphae of discolouring mould fungi can penetrate into the coatings leading to pinhole formation. As their consequence for coating integrity is not the same a clearer distinction should probably be made in EN 927-3. As discolouring mould fungi lead to pinholes in the film, the service life of coatings may dramatically be shortened because these pinholes may increase water uptake.

Scots pine is the wood species used for EN 927-3 tests. This species is very sensitive to blue stain. In service, and especially for windows, it is recommended to protect this wood species against blue stain with a preservative product before coating application. Therefore, when natural weathering tests for wood coatings are carried out on Scots pine, a preservative treatment effective against blue stain should be applied as part of the coating system to estimate the service life of coatings with practical relevance.

Test precision of the QUV method.
The test precision of the laboratory QUV method described in EN 927-6 was determined in a Round Robin test among the participating labs. Variability of test results within and between labs was found to be in the same order of magnitude, but to depend on the level of damage (Fig. 9). A formal precision statement was proposed for a revision of EN 927-6. This method uses fluorescent UV lamps, water spray and condensation. Laboratory exposure devices allow some systematic variation of dosage which is not usually possible with outdoor natural weathering although the MFER allows some variation.. Dosage variations were studied by modifying the artificial weathering cycle and it was found that the cycle described in the present standard includes an optimal combination of UV-radiation and moisture stress. It was confirmed that this artificial weathering cycle can reveal the characteristics of important degradation effects of diverse wood coating systems as they occur in natural weathering but in shorter time periods. The cycle modifications with increased time of wetness led to lower degradation mainly because the time for UV radiation was reduced for the benefit of higher moisture stress. Cycles with increased temperature resulted in faster degradation but at the same time lower wood moisture content of the panels.

The Round Robin test led to important improvements of the artificial weathering procedure such as better maintenance schedules of the apparatus, a new routine for panel rotation inside the devices and internal data checks for instance by including measurements of colour and gloss at the unexposed reference panels at each interval. A new reference material tested in the Round Robin enabled a comparison of dosage in the different devices and served as an internal control standard to check the procedure (Fig. 10). This ‘maintenance indicator’ consisted of plates of orange PMMA with a white coating which is sensitive to light, moisture and rain. Degradation of this coating in different film thicknesses resulted in a stepwise occurrence of the signal orange colour of the substrate. The application of this reference material in artificial weathering was successful, it would, however, need further development to be suitable for natural weathering, in order to resist biological impacts such as mould growth and premature failure.

The effect of wood species.
The wood species Oak, Meranti, Larch, Spruce and Pine with variations of growth ring angles were investigated in a part of the project to capture the influence of the wood substrate. The wood species influenced the performance (Fig. 11). Pine and Oak showed earliest and most severe changes followed by Spruce which was followed by Meranti and Larch with the least changes. The ring orientation influenced the performance very little in field exposure but significantly in artificial weathering. On softwood species flat sawn panels showed higher changes than those with 5-45° growth ring angle. On hardwood species no clear influence of ring orientation was found. However, the dominating differences in this experiment were found for the different coating systems used, their variation with pigmented and clear formulations had a higher effect than the variation of the wood species and growth ring orientation.

The SERVOWOOD project was a three year project (No. 606576) funded by the EC under its FP7 funding programme. Project website: www.servowood.eu.

Summary of key findings:
Development of a factor based quantitative model for the service life prediction of coated wood. Factors relevant to performance are used to modulate a ‘reference service life’ and may be derived from either laboratory testing including ‘artificial weathering’ devices or natural weathering exposure. To support the model development and provide input to the EN 927 Exterior Wood Coating Standards a comprehensive testing programme was carried out including:
• exposure analysis of multivariate accelerated photo-degradation studies of panels, both field and laboratory based on a variety of wood species
• quantification of coating damage using a broad range of metrics and techniques, including mechanical properties, glass transition temperature (Tg) and spectroscopy
• development of new multi-faceted exposure rig (MFER) developed to enable simultaneous dosage information from a range of natural weathering exposures
• determination of precision data for the existing artificial weathering testing protocol in EN 927-6
• further development of maintenance indicators and moisture sensors.

Potential Impact:
SUSTAINABILITY OF COATED WOOD IN EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS (window frames and other structures)
In exterior applications wood is for many consumers a preferred choice as a matter of taste. To extend the life-time and use of wood in outdoor conditions it is typically covered with a paint or varnish layer. To maintain the protective nature of the coating it needs several recoats before the wooden article reaches the end of its life time. There are however other substrates that could fulfil the same function in outdoor use. If window frames are taken there is Aluminium with an anodized-layer or a layer of powder-coating or full PVC frames (no additional coating). These alternatives have a lower demand for maintenance. A fair comparison of the sustainability of the different substrates with their typical surface protections can only be made via a full Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) including all the parameters (type of wood; type of coating; durability of the coating; maintenance intervals etc.) for the substrate in its use phase and for its end of life. An overall benefit of this project will be that the outcomes will contribute to defining the parameters that can be used for such LCAs.

The work done for this project will feed into the currently on-going EU Pilot project for the Product Environmental Footprint of paints, where these wood coatings are included.

This part of the report intends to describe the benefits from the project and the different stakeholders that may exploit these.

IDENTIFYING BENEFITTING AUDIENCES / STAKEHOLDERS
The results from this project are not directly about new or improved products. It is about new and better knowledge how exterior wood coatings do degrade.

The SMEs and Associations from the project consortium have identified the stakeholders by assessing that they will be getting something new in the fulfilling of their job.

The following stakeholders are identified:
• Wooden window frame manufacturer
• Architect
• Paint manufacturer
• Maintenance decision maker / building owner

This will see the following changes for the main stakeholders.

FOR THE MANUFACTURER OF WINDOW FRAMES
The individual manufacturer will in his product proposition to the market:
• In liaison with his paint supplier revise the service life and maintenance frequencies, this could lead to revised guarantees being agreed
• With the possibility of supplying embedded Moisture Indicator Sensors (MIS) offer a smart and scientific way of an early warning to start maintenance before visual coating damage.

This industry as a whole will:
• have with more predictable maintenance frequencies new inputs for LCA studies
• have a chance to relook at the window design parameters related to exposure results from coatings
• be better positioned when it comes to sustainability; more competitive

FOR THE ARCHITECT
They will:
• By the greater clarity on maintenance be more inclined to look into wood for exterior use.
• Have a greater confidence in prescribing type of wood combined with type of coating for different climates.

FOR THE PAINT MANUFACTURER
The essence of this project was studying the degradation of coatings that results by the exposure to different doses of weather influences like water, temperature and sunlight. The resulting changes in physical characteristics were observed and linked with coating’s capability to protect the wood for a user defined period.

A host of data has been gathered for variables like wood surface and coating qualities.

From this the individual paint manufacturer will:
• have a set of new tools by which he can, in a shorter timeframe, predict the service life of his paint.
The scientific know how obtained through this project will be at the base of justifying the use of the new tools. He can first use the toolbox to establish how his current portfolio of paints performs.
From there he can embark upon using the new tools for further paint improvements.
• Have data that form the base for a better correlation between artificial and natural weathering.
• Have a more reliable prediction on the service life of the supplied paint through modelling and a factor method

The paint industry as a whole will:
• See a more robust European Norm for establishing exterior durability (input of precision statement into EN927)
• Have the basis for defining maintenance periods that feed into the category rules for the EU project on Product Environmental Footprint for paint (CEPE)

FOR THE MAINTENANCE DECISIONMAKER / BUILDING OWNER
The individual maintenance inspector will:
• be able to make better prediction of maintenance intervals; even more so if he can make use of the MIS.
• lower his costs for inspections and maintenance (mostly driven by the costs of scaffolding).
List of Websites:
The website for the project is to be found at http://www.servowood.eu/, during the course of the project this provided a public source of information and news (demonstrated in the first periodic report RP1). The site also had a password protected section containing project reports and deliverables. With the conclusion of the project the site has been revised to be entirely in the public domain to provide an overview of the project and links to the project consortium for future follow-up. The site will be maintained by CEPE.

Reported by

CONSEIL EUROPEEN DE L'INDUSTRIE DESPEINTURES DES ENCRES D'IMPRIMERIE ET DES COULEURS D'ART AISBL
Belgium
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