Wspólnotowy Serwis Informacyjny Badan i Rozwoju - CORDIS

Implementation of APP determination during pig production

Thanks to the results of the studies conducted under the project, suggestions for proper sampling and better understanding of APP´s (acute phase proteins) on pig production could be made:

Do's and don'ts when sampling for APP´s:
Things you should do:
- Record carefully the age, sex and physiological status. Important differences due to these factors can be found.

- Take a big enough number of samples for every factor you want to study. Depending on the method you use, not less than 10 samples should be taken.

- Comparisons with the typical pattern for your situation should be done. You will know what is usual or more commonly found.

- Take your samples randomly using animals of different pens.

- Understand variability. Use average with standard deviation or standard error always. Same average can mean very different things.

- Use the APP´s in combination with serum profile against infection diseases. This can provide a better understanding of the situation.

- Check suspected as critical or hazardous points in your production system. Subclinical situations with low performance can be detected more easily. Once you have taken measures to correct it, check again the levels to confirm the efficancy.

Things you should not do:
- Do not forget that the acute phase reaction has a biological cost which means not only higher mortality but losses of performance are also very frequent and are well described.

- Do not try to understand everything from a single analysis of APP´s. Very often you are going to need other tools.

- Do not take samples up to 10 days after a vaccination. Vaccination leeds to increased APP-levels.

- Do not forget your other tools in the analysis for the situation. Clinical symptoms, necropsies, serum profiles or others will lead you to a better understanding of the situation.

- Do not take samples on runts or chronically sick animals. Your results could be biased.

- Do not forget to ask your vet or consultant. Only he can provide a good understanding and the right approach.

Furthermore a recommendation for sampling ages respectively weights were performed.

Suggested sampling ages respectively weights when sampling pigs for APP´s:
- Age (days) 28 60 80 116;
- Weight (kg) 7 20 35 60 Age.

- Age (days) Slaughter (-3);
Weight (kg) 100 +.

Finally a test strategy for APP Screening was developed.

In this model, APP concentrations are measured at the time of each inspection. Preconditions for the blood analysis, known from literature, were defined. If the pigs were not weaned or if the last vaccination was done within the last 10 days, then the APP levels could be influenced by these factors and blood testing should not be done.

If the APP concentrations are below the physiological norm then the group can be assessed as a group without deviation. But if the APP levels were above the norm then the pigs will be ranked as a group with deviations, and adverse effects on the production will be expected.

Hence, a weak-point analysis should be done, as well as testing for infectious diseases like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection etc. If there are no disease indications the weak-point analysis should be continued. Any disease indications should be investigated and their successful control monitored.

More information on the APP IN PIG PRODUCTIO -project can be found at:

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Reported by

Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
Katzenburgweg 7-9
53115 Bonn
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