Servizio Comunitario di Informazione in materia di Ricerca e Sviluppo - CORDIS


TENORMHARM Sintesi della relazione

Project ID: FIGM-CT-2001-00174
Finanziato nell'ambito di: FP5-EAECTP C
Paese: Germany

National reports to levels and inventory of TENORM by each type of industry

The kind and number of TENORM industries, the amount of material, residuals and waste and, the level and variability of specific activities differ considerably between the participating countries as well as between the factories or sites of one and the same branch.

From the initially selected 43 industrial branches where TENORM could occur 31 branches or processes have been identified in at least one of the participating countries. Beside of such industries which never existed in the participating counties, especially some kind of ore mining, that is mainly the result of decommissioning of older factories, decreasing industrial capacity, changes in the economic structure, implementation of advanced “low or no waste” technologies and/or the use of imported intermediate products instead of raw materials.

The last two arguments concern mainly the European phosphate fertilizer industry. Furthermore, for two of these 31 branches no TENORM according to the above-mentioned definition were identified. That concerns the steel production and the oil refinery. In case of metal melting for secondary melting also no TENORM have been identified.

The greatest amount of residuals results from mining and combustion of coal in all countries. Nevertheless, from the heaped up or re-used waste rock material and fly ash only a minor part contains naturally occurring radionuclides with enhanced concentrations. On the other hand, coal mining may lead to higher contaminated residues as a consequence of pit water treatment and of contaminated river sediments and banks if the pit water is discharged without treatment.

Furthermore, high specific activities of more than 10,000Bq/kg of naturally occurring radionuclides were identified for oil and gas exploitation (scales), iron melting (blast furnace sludge and sinter dust scales), titanium pigment industry (ash), processing of mineral sands (raw materials), niobium and tantalum manufacture (raw materials, solid waste), primary zinc, copper and lead melting (dust precipitates) and drinking water and mineral water processing (sludge), but in most cases of comparably small amounts.

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Reported by

Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS)
Kurfuerstendamm 200
10719 Berlin
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