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Production of bakery products: biscuits, muffins, extruded snacks

The objective of this research was to show the potential of lupin protein isolate (LPI) and lupin flour for the production of bakery products. LPI was used as a substitute for egg and milk proteins and lupin flour was used as a partial replacement of wheat flour. Two types of model foods have been successfully developed: lupin muffins and lupin biscuits.

Lupin muffins: LPI-E was used in concentrations of 1.5 - 3.7% (w/w) as a substitute for egg and milk proteins in order to get 100% vegetable products low in cholesterol. The egg/milk protein (2.2%) in the reference formulation was substituted in steps of 25% up to a substitution ratio of 175%. The best texture and taste was achieved at a lupin protein concentration of 2.2%, replacing 100% of the milk/egg protein of the original recipe.

These muffins had a better expansion and a slightly bigger firmness than the reference muffin. Substitution ratios of 175% were possible but resulting muffins showed softer crumb and lower expansion. In a sensory test with an expert panel (11 evaluators, descriptive assay with 10 point scale) the lupin muffins with 2.2% LPI were compared to reference products based on egg or soy protein respectively. With regard to the sensory attributes evaluated, no significant differences were found in most of the sensory descriptors, particularly those related to aroma and texture. The lupin muffin showed significantly more bean like taste and the overall acceptability was slightly lower than the egg reference. This demonstrates that LPI is a possible animal protein replacement in bakery products especially for vegetarians and people allergic against egg/milk products.

Lupin biscuits: Several biscuits were tested by Fraunhofer IVV and Terrena in order to develop a healthy biscuit, high in protein, 100% vegetable, with low fat and long shelf life.

The most successful models tested were an almond containing cantucci biscuit (1) and a sesame biscuit (2).
(1): Lupin cantucci could be developed from an egg based reference by totally substituting the egg protein by LPI and partial substitution of wheat flour by lupin flour and LPI. The best texture and taste were achieved at lupin protein concentrations of 6% to 8% (w/w), but acceptable products were possible up to 12% of lupin protein. Generally the hardness of the biscuits increased with the amount of lupin protein added. At additions higher than 13% the biscuits developed a remarkable lupin taste. A consumer acceptance test with 83 untrained persons using a hedonic scale from 1 (like extremely) to 7 (dislike) was performed with lupin biscuits containing 6% and 12% of lupin protein and a reference based on egg protein. The reference sample was the most accepted. The 12% lupin biscuit was the least accepted but the score did not vary significantly from the 6% lupin biscuit. Standard deviations between 1.4 and 1.7 for the overall acceptance of the two lupin biscuits demonstrated that these cookies polarised the testers. Some of them liked or even tolerated the taste whereas an equal group disliked the samples.

(2): Biscuits containing 7.5% and 15% of lupin flour/grits (corresponding to 3% and 6% lupin protein concentration respectively) were prepared. The hardness profile of both biscuits was comparable to the reference product without lupin. A consumer acceptance test with 30 evaluators using a hedonic scale from 1 (dislike) to 9 (like extremely) didn t show significant differences between the samples. The mean scores of 7.0 for the overall appearance, 6.0 for the texture and 5.6 for the overall acceptability indicated a good acceptability. Cookies produced with a similar recipe with the addition of 7.5% and 15% of LPI-E (equal to a lupin protein concentration of 6.8% and 13.4% respectively) increased the hardness of the biscuits. The product with addition of 7.5% of LPI reached a value of 5.3 for the overall acceptability, which was comparable to the lupin flour, based biscuits.

Lupin-based snacks: The purpose was to produce new snacks, richer in proteins and fibres and less energetic than those found on the market. Because lupin flour contains about 40% of protein, 30% of fibres and 10% of lipids, it is used to improve snacks nutritional value. On the other hand lupin flour does not contain starch, so it cannot be extruded alone. Corn semolina and rice flour have been used to bring the minimum necessary quantity of starch. 60% of corn semolina or rice flour + 40% of lupin flour was the base mix to produce flavoured snacks. Lupin snacks produced presented very high nutritional interest: 21% of protein, 15% of fibres and about 5% of lipids against 7% of protein, 2% of fibres and 35% of lipids for standard snacks.

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