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Teratogenic effects on eggs and early embryos

Endocrine disrupters (estrogens, androgens, estrogenic and androgenic pharmacological agonists and antagonists) were shown to differentially interfere with several biological features of mammalian reproduction.

Four of the six drugs we tested were shown to be deleterious.

Estrogen EE2 but not E3 exerts a clearcut inhibitory effects on in vitro oocyte maturation delays zygote cleavage, as well as the very early morphogenetic events. Bisphenol A, a widely used pharmacological estrogen-receptor agonist was shown to be inhibitory of oocyte maturation only. On the opposite, tamoxifen, an estrogen antagonist has no effect on maturation but is highly toxic on secondary oocytes and cleaving embryos.

As far as androgenic pathway is concerned, the androgen MDHT was shown to exert no effect at all on all biological phenomena we analysed while the antagonist tamoxifen is dramatically inhibitory of oocyte maturation and also delays zygote cleavage.

It should be pointed out that delaying effect on cleavage of EE2, tamoxifen and flutamide was confirmed on proliferating F9 carcinoma cells. No effect was however detected on their in vitro differentiation into parietal extraembryonic endoderm.
Finally, our assays did not allow detecting any deleterious effect of alls these compounds at low concentrations similar to the one we used in Lambro mixtures.

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