Servizio Comunitario di Informazione in materia di Ricerca e Sviluppo - CORDIS

City in Time

The City in Time study synthesised historical and futures results from the historical data collected by the 29 case studies, which provides a valuable trans-European data set.

It addressed a number of core questions on the history:
-What were the strategic decisions that have mostly affected the development?
-Who and what factors define and create demand for services?
- How does the historical context constrain potential best practices for the future?
- What limits do technical choices of the past impose on decision-making?
- On what basis have selected strategies been formulated and decided upon during different time periods?
- Importance of water management culture and diversity.

It elaborated a long-term typology of water services management paradigms over time:
- Early trials in biggest urban centres with private concessions from the early 1800s to the late 1800s;
- Municipalities assuming responsibility between the mid-1800s and early 1900s. Somewhat later in France concessions were replaced by management contracts or affermage;
- Technical expansion and development of the established systems, from the early 1900s to the 1980s (except for WWI and II) - from narrow to wide coverage and improved water and wastewater treatment technologies together with stricter requirements. Municipal or inter-municipal systems were the major option, while regionalisation and river basin became the basis for water services in UK. In France private operators have largely occupied the market;
- Reinvention of privatisation and private operational contracts in the 1990s in some countries and cities while the vast majority of municipal-owned systems improving their performance and continuing buying services, equipment and goods from the private sector;
- New diversity culture of water management of the 21st century in terms of size, roles, technological solutions, alternative options within the wider EU framework while recognising the need of local traditions and conditions.

Informazioni correlate

Reported by

Tampere University of Technology (TUT) Institute of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology,
33101 Tampere
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