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MIRACLES Report Summary

Project ID: 11953
Funded under: FP5-GROWTH
Country: Italy

Method of measurement of pollutant concentrations by floating van

Since many years ENEA is developping his own dynamic emission model and related software(TEE - Trasport,Energy and Environment)to calculate road traffic pollutant emissions from input data produced by traffic models.

The ENEA's TEE model and software, already validated in other EU funded projects (i.e.JUPITER, ESTEEM,HESAID,HEAVEN)and recently become part of the ISHTAR model suite, was selected, together with a traffic model(TRANSCAD)and an atmospheric dispertion model(ADMS),and used by ATAC/STA for the mapping the air pollutant concentration levels within the Miracles labotatory area as needed to evaluate Miracles measures.

To improve the calculation of the air pollutant emissions, the TEE model(as well as the other dynamic emission models),in addition to the standard data provided by the traffic models, requires traffic kinetics data,as speed profiles, which are collected by the so called "floating cars".

The smaller fractions of the particulate matter (PM10, PM2,5 and PM1), which are the most harmful and dangerous for human health, are now considered as the most worrying air pollutant in Rome and PM10 concentration levels are still a big problem in many other italian cities.

To increase and get more reliable the knowledge about the concentration levels of this critical pollutant, a special mobile laboratory (floating van) was equipped by ENEA and a field measuring programme was designed and implemented to collect data about the PM exposure levels along the PT routes and, in particular, to evaluate the impact of the introduction of a new electric bus line travelling along the Nomentana road in Rome.

The ENEA's "floating van":
The "floating van", used by ENEA for the above mentioned field measuring programme, is a mobile laboratory, equipped for the fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM10,PM2.5 and PM1.0)detection, on which have been also installed the devices necessary for the measurement and the collection of traffic kinetic data. It can be used at the same time as floating car to provide the input data, as required by a dynamic emissions model (like TEE 2005, supplied by ENEA) to estimate the pollutante emission rates, and for monitoring the air pollutant concentration levels in a specific location.

While the fixed monitoring stations are based on gravitometric methods, the equipment installed on the ENEA's "floating van" (GRIMM 1008) is based on the new laser scattering method.

In order to take into account the atmospheric dispertion conditions and the pollutant emission background (i.e. domestic heating systems and industrial source), all PM concentration measures must referred to "standard" weather conditions (i.e. day hours, from 8 am to 6 pm, high atmospheric pressure and very low wind)and must be indexed by means of the local Radon emission index and of the corresponding PM10 concentration values, measured by the fixed monitoring stations.
Conclusion and future plans

The final results of the Miracles field measuring campaign showed the expected reduction,ranging from 8 to 12% in function of the different day hours,in the average PM concentration levels. The reduction in PM1.0 and PM2.5 concetration levels was larger than that in PM10 concentration, confirming that the smaller fractions of particulate matter are mainly those produced by road traffic.

ENEA plans to use the "floating van", within national or EU future projects, to evaluate specific traffic measures, mainly in agreement with italian municipalities and local administrations; to improve the potentiality of the "floating van", it would be very useful to install a GPS device and new measuring equipment, based on gas chromatografy, for the detection of other harmful polluntants(i.e. NOx, Benzene, Ozone.etc.).

Reported by

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