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D4b: Human like child neck FE model (ULP)

A three- year old child (3YOC) was scanned with a medical scanner. The images were first semi-automatically segmented in order to extract the soft tissues and the bones. In the second step, we separate the different bones slice by slice on the model previously reconstructed. The anatomic structures are identified and each vertebra is reconstructed independently with special attention for the particular process. A polymer physical model of the bones is obtained with a prototyping machine and is used as geometrical reference.

Our 3YOC finite element neck model is based on the geometry of an existing adult model developed by Golinski (2000) and modified by Meyer (2003). The scaling process is conduced in order to fit the finite element model dimensions as close as possible to the physical model. The anatomical structures modellised are the head, the seven cervical and the first thoracic vertebrae, the inter-vertebral discs and the principle ligaments. These are modelled using non-linear shock-absorbing spring elements. The stiffness values used are issued from Myklebust (1988) and Chazal (1985), adjusted to the model using the stiffness scaling factors found by Yoganandan (2000). Contact between the articular surfaces is represented by interfaces permitting frictionless movement. At least, the model is validated in comparison of the Q3 Madymo neck model.

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