Community Research and Development Information Service - CORDIS

Sustainable urban transport plans

The main outcomes of the Meteor project are:

1) Cross site evaluation report

This report provides a cross site evaluation of all the Civitas I measures that have been implemented. During the project the cities have evaluated the impacts of the measures where possible. The evaluation has been divided into:

- the process evaluation (the process of realising the output of the measures);
- impact evaluation (the outcome of the measures).

An analysis has also been performed to investigate to what extent the measures are suitable for adoption by other cities ('the transferability of measures'). The report is based on evaluation data, provided by the demonstration projects and the cities. The methodology and the overall results are described in the first part, while a more detail description of the results for each cluster of measures is provided in the second part.

Meteor has grouped the 212 different innovative measures into 11 clusters in order to draw constructive conclusions of the several themes. The clusters are:

- transport information and management;
- multimodal interchange;
- mobility management;
- cycling;
- car sharing and car pooling;
- zones with controlled access;
- clean vehicles and fuels;
- public transport;
- goods distribution and logistic services;
- parking management;
- road pricing.

The process evaluation aimed to identify typical patterns of barriers and drivers that affected the implementation of the measures in Civitas I, and to provide substance for the formulation of policy recommendations regarding future implementation processes. The information for the process evaluation has been provided by the 19 Civitas I cities and their local partners through self-assessment. A total of 212 measure level result templates have been analysed in terms of statements concerning barriers and drivers, including any additional information with regard to the implementation process. Based on the issues identified by the local representatives, 12 barrier/driver categories have been defined, four of which have further been divided into subcategories. The assessment of the level of influence of each barrier/driver has been used to obtain a weighted ranking of barrier/driver categories. A general assessment of the numbers of barriers and drivers identified within each cluster provided an indication for the expected success and failure rate:

- high success rate, i.e. drivers surpassed barriers (clean vehicles and fuels / mobility management / cycling / parking management / transport information and management;
- proximity of success and failure, i.e. balanced influence of barriers and drivers (public transport / car sharing and car pooling);
- high failure rate, i.e.barriers excel drivers (goods distribution and logistic services / multimodal interchange / zones with controlled access / road pricing).

The cross site impact evaluation was based on the Maestro approach which was developed on behalf of the European Commission within the Fourth Framework Program. Essential elements from Maestro that have been applied are the application of an ex-ante and an ex-post analysis, the distinction between the before and after comparison and the projects' impact by comparing the project results with the results of a do-nothing scenario. Evaluation at measure and city level was performed by the cities according to the evaluation plans. The cross-site evaluation focused on the analysis at cluster level; while results from cities regarding up-scaling possibilities were also investigated.

At measure level many positive impacts on environment and energy use were reported. Clusters where the measures reported excellent results, are cycling, carpooling and car sharing, clean vehicles and fuels, public transport, goods distribution and logistic services, parking management and road pricing. Indicators of the transport system also showed positive results.

The impact at economic level was mixed, as several measures caused higher costs when compared to traditional solutions. This was the case in several measures within the cluster public transport. Awareness and acceptance was good in almost all clusters: many citizens recognised the Civitas measures and supported them.

Due to the relatively small scale of the measures in general no major impacts on economy, environment, energy use and on transport indicators were reported as a direct result of the measures implemented within the Civitas program. Nevertheless the following positive conclusions can be made:

- In many cities a positive impact on awareness of the objectives of the Civitas program could be measured. Citizens recognise and support the objectives related to the way in which mobility and transport in cities needs to change.
- Many of the demonstration projects will continue after Civitas.
- Many of the measures are appropriate for up-scaling and will have a notable impact at city level once implemented on a wider scale.
- The impact will be more strongly felt if accompanied by other measures (packaging).

The approach towards transferability was based on identifying relevant information from the data accumulated during Civitas I, in order to replicate such measures in any new target cities.

Transferability does not simply refer to individual technical or operational features, but how a measure corresponds to the receptor city. In some cases not only the measure will be transferred as a policy instrument but also certain relations between measures themselves, whilst ensuring suitable institutional support.

The measures' full potential may not be achieved unless enhancing combinations of measures are considered (packaging). Mobility management and zones of controlled access are types of measures that can enforce many of the measures in the other clusters.

Findings suggest that clusters of measures can indeed be characterised regarding their ability to be successfully transferred to different cities. The most important driver in a successful transferability process is predominantly the ability to adequately replicate the context, namely physical, cultural and institutional conditions. The success of a number of individual measures within a certain policy cluster is sensitive to several different, specific conditions meaning any aggregated analysis on transferability is likely to be insufficient for a city to assess its own situation, in which case individual consideration per measure will be required, however, it is worth taking into account that there are general notions to explore regarding the guidelines for transferability.

2) The dissemination booklet 'CIVITAS in Europe – A proven framework for progress in urban mobility'

This booklet provides a summary of the results and conclusions of Civitas I.

So far, and by all accounts, the Civitas integrated approach to urban transport has proved a genuine success: Civitas has delivered a set of benefits far in excess of the concrete outputs originally foreseen.

New political alliances and mechanisms for change, customer-driven planning processes, emerging public-private partnerships and, last but not least, technology solutions that drive change, are just some of the value-added outputs being delivered by Civitas cities.

In terms of concrete results, a number of noteworthy accomplishments were made possible by Civitas I. These include, just naming a few:

- a combined 8000 new clean vehicles circulating on our roads;
- a 10 % traffic reduction induced by the Bristol by the Home Zone project in the Dings area;
- 44,000 passengers carried daily by the new electric bus lines in Rome;
- a 30 % reduction of transport movements fostered by the coordination of goods delivery in the Kattegat River area of Göteborg;
- an important leap in cycling share in Graz thanks to an integrated package of bike-supporting measures;
- a 55 % reduction in PM levels in the new clear zone of Cork;
- remarkable improvements in public satisfaction with public transport services in Rome (+10 %), Nantes (+28 %) and Stockholm (+8 %).

Civitas project results have meant measurable direct benefit to citizens and business in the participating cities. Reduced congestion, better public transport, improved conditions for cyclists and pedestrians, and many other advantages are all contributing to improvements in the quality of urban life. And it is not only the citizens of Civitas cities who are gaining, as practical lessons learned are already filtering into other towns across the European Union.

3) The dissemination booklet 'A policy assessement of the Civitas initiative”

In this booklet the final conclusions are elaborated and more general visions on future actions and policies are included, based on the results of Civitas I.

Reported by

NEA Transport Research and Training B.V.
Sir Winston Churchillaan 297
See on map
Follow us on: RSS Facebook Twitter YouTube Managed by the EU Publications Office Top