Servicio de Información Comunitario sobre Investigación y Desarrollo - CORDIS

Final Activity Report Summary - BIOBEARING (Bio and slide bearings, their lubrication by non-newtonian oils and application in non-conventional systems)

BIOBEARING was Transfer of knowledge (ToK) in the field of unconventional systems for slide journal bearing and human biobearing lubrication for refused or improved non-Newtonian oils with elastic and micropolar properties in variable time dependent magnetic induction field and deformed bearing surfaces and hyperelastic cartilage surfaces in human joints.

The main topics of this transfer of knowledge were as follows:
1. Establishing analytical, numerical and experimental methods for solving of bearing systems working in non-conventional conditions and environments.
2. Calculation, simulation and measuring of pressure and temperature distributions in slide radial bearing gap as well as exploitation parameters, mainly: friction forces, friction coefficients, wear of cooperating surfaces in experimental and numerical way.
3. Development the knowledge of active control of fluid flow and vibrations, particularly in relation to biobearings.
4. Gaining the level of nanotechnology knowledge concerning the application of slide bearing by utilisation of biomaterials.

BIOBEARING research field was related to hydrodynamics, biomechanics, control systems, vibration, tribology and lubrication. It was simultaneously connected to many multidisciplinary domains of knowledge, for example: hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, theory of elasticity, theory of plasticity, electrodynamics, electronic engineering, mechanochemistry and mechanobiology. The theory of conjugated fields was applied, too. To proof the numerical results under different sliding conditions of the bearings (elaborated in Gdansk University of Technology (GUT) as the host organisation), implementation of the modern non-destructive testing methods was required (which were available in the partner organisations). The external recruited experts were also needed for those activities which were related to active control of fluid flows and vibrations, as well as nanostructure biomaterials.

Scientific problems considered in the project were mainly focused on comparisons of tribological processes, which occur during flow of biological fluids around joint cartilage cells during lubrication of human joint surfaces, as well as surfaces of micro- and nano-bearings used in micro-mechanisms. The tissue growth was also considered as the process of change of mass of a biological system defined by genetic (congenital) factors and dependent on epigenetic (environmental) factors (temperature, mechanical stress and strain, internal and external physical fields, etc.). The effects of influence of congenial growth and genetic code of bio-bearing or bio-joints material on the lubricant viscosity and lubricant process. A general theory of materials with memory is the theory of simple fluid developed by Noll and Koleman. The simple fluid theory presented in this project is based on the assumption that stress is defined by a whole deformation history.

Some scientific achievements of the project are as follows:
1. Numerical calculated values of pressure distributions for the elbow cylindrical human joints performed in this project by virtue of analytical models taking into account the effects of congenial and growth influences on the lubrication process are compared with initial measured hydrodynamic pressure values performed by means of AFM.
2. Derivation of the modified Reynolds equation containing the terms describing the influences of congenial and genetic properties of the lubricant and micro-bearing materials on the pressure and load carrying capacity of bio-joints and micro-bearing.
3. The comparisons presented in this project between human bio-joints and micro-bearings are indicated that the biobearing theory of lubrication is very helpful in MEMS and NEMS devices.
4. The research presented in the project provides an important impact for developing the new scientific domain such as cyto-tribology, histo-tribology or tribology of cells, and tissue and of micro-surfaces occurring in mechanical micro-bearings.
5. The effects of influence of congenial growth and genetic code of bio-bearing or bio-joints material on the lubricant viscosity and lubricant process is well investigated.

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