Service Communautaire d'Information sur la Recherche et le Développement - CORDIS

Final Activity Report Summary - ENDOCYTE (The intracellular routes of growth factor signalling from the plasma membrane to the nucleus)

1) CCM2 mediates death signalling by the TrkA receptor tyrosine kinase:
The TrkA receptor tyrosine kinase is crucial for differentiation and survival of nerve-growth-factor-dependent neurons. Paradoxically, TrkA also induces cell death in pediatric tumour cells of neural origin, via an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that CCM2, a gene product associated with cerebral cavernous malformations, interacts with the juxtamembrane region of TrkA via its phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain and mediates TrkA-induced death in diverse cell types. Both the PTB and Karet domains of CCM2 are required for TrkA-dependent cell death, such that the PTB domain determines the specificity of the interaction, and the Karet domain links to death pathways. Downregulation of CCM2 in medulloblastoma or neuroblastoma cells attenuates TrkA-dependent death. Combined high expression levels of CCM2 and TrkA are correlated with long-term survival in a large cohort of human neuroblastoma patients. Thus, CCM2 is a key mediator of TrkA-dependent cell death in pediatric neuroblastic tumors.

2) PtdIns(3)P controls cytokinesis through KIF13A-mediated recruitment of FYVE-CENT to the midbody:
Several subunits of the class III phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K-III) complex are known as tumour suppressors. Here we uncover a function for this complex and its catalytic product phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) in cytokinesis. We show that PtdIns(3)P localises to the midbody during cytokinesis and recruits a centrosomal protein, FYVE-CENT (ZFYVE26), and its binding partner TTC19, which in turn interacts with CHMP4B, an endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III subunit implicated in the abscission step of cytokinesis. Translocation of FYVE-CENT and TTC19 from the centrosome to the midbody requires another FYVE-CENT-interacting protein, the microtubule motor KIF13A. Depletion of the VPS34 or Beclin 1 subunits of PI(3)K-III causes cytokinesis arrest and an increased number of binucleate and multinucleate cells, in a similar manner to the depletion of FYVE-CENT, KIF13A or TTC19. These results provide a mechanism for the translocation and docking of a cytokinesis regulatory machinery at the midbody.

3) Activation of the p75 neurotrophin receptor through conformational rearrangement of disulphide-linked receptor dimers:
Ligand-mediated dimerization has emerged as a universal mechanism of growth factor receptor activation. Neurotrophins interact with dimers of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)), but the mechanism of receptor activation has remained elusive. Here, we show that p75(NTR) forms disulphide-linked dimers independently of neurotrophin binding through the highly conserved Cys(257) in its transmembrane domain. Mutation of Cys(257) abolished neurotrophin-dependent receptor activity but did not affect downstream signaling by the p75(NTR)/NgR/Lingo-1 complex in response to MAG, indicating the existence of distinct, ligand-specific activation mechanisms for p75(NTR). FRET experiments revealed a close association of p75(NTR) intracellular domains that was transiently disrupted by conformational changes induced upon NGF binding. Although mutation of Cys(257) did not alter the oligomeric state of p75(NTR), the mutant receptor was no longer able to propagate conformational changes to the cytoplasmic domain upon ligand binding. We propose that neurotrophins activate p75(NTR) by a mechanism involving rearrangement of disulphide-linked receptor subunits.

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