Road infrastructure to support the transition to automation and the coexistence of conventional and automated vehicles on the same network Proposals should address several of the following aspects:―New methods of traffic flow modelling depending from the introduction of automated vehicles.―Design, upgrading and adaptation of “hybrid” infrastructure (able to take into account the coexistence of fully or partially automated (connected or autonomous) and conventional vehicles).―Required forms of visual and electronic signalling and optical guidance, ensuring readability by both automated and conventional vehicles, and enabling automated driving in also adverse road weather conditions.―Best ways to enlarge the electronic road horizon for automated vehicle ensuring timely reaction to hazards ahead via real-time warnings and information, traffic management plans, up-to-date digital maps, etc.―New safety performance criteria for road infrastructure, with the goal to set the basis for a timely deployment of automation-appropriate infrastructure network.Urban and extra-urban roads could be included.Proposals are invited to take due consideration of the content of projects already funded at European level through the CEDR's Transnational Research Programme (http://www.cedr.fr/home/index.php?id=260).In line with the Union's strategy for international cooperation in research and innovation [COM(2012)497], international cooperation is encouraged. In particular proposals should foresee twinning with projects funded by US DOT [United States Department of Transportation (http://www.dot.gov/).] to exchange knowledge and experience and to exploit synergies.The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the EU of between EUR 2 to 5 million each would allow this specific challenge to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts. The foreseen step-wise introduction of automated vehicles in traffic will face a transition period where the coexistence of conventional and highly automated vehicles will have to be managed in order to ensure an uninterrupted level of safety and efficiency. Road infrastructure will play a major role in managing this transition period. Actions are expected to demonstrate how innovative modelling, design and engineering of road infrastructure will facilitate the step-wise introduction of automated driving systems taking in consideration concerns for safety performance and users' appreciation.