FET Flagship on Quantum Technologies A. Research and Innovation ActionsProposals are expected to address a mix of quantum technology challenges addressing one or more of the following areas, integrating different aspects like physics, engineering, computer science, theory, algorithms, software, manufacturing, control, infrastructures, etc. Each activity should clearly move the technology up the TRL scale[[See the definition of Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) in the General Annexes to the work programme.]]. For areas a. to d., proposals can integrate various activities covering the whole value chain, from fundamental to applied research, and with other types of activity, including demonstrators, etc., as appropriate.a. Quantum Communication[[See also the dedicated topic on Quantum Key Distribution Testbed in the LEIT ICT work programme (topic SU-ICT-04-2019).]]: Development of state-of-the art network devices, applications and systems (memories, quantum repeaters, network equipment, high throughput miniaturised quantum random number generators, etc.) for quantum communication mesh-networks. Proposals should target cost-effective solutions, devices and systems compatible with existing communication networks and standard cryptography systems, as well as device-independent protocols. Each proposal should address aspects like engineering, protocols, certification, software, algorithms. Actions should include validation of the proposed solution, proof of its suitability for the targeted application and benchmarking with respect to relevant targets set by the CSA[[See item B. under this call topic.]] in this area.b. Quantum Computing Systems: The development of open quantum computer experimental systems and platforms[[Including, if relevant, hybrid approaches linking quantum and classical systems or linking different quantum platforms.]], integrating the key building blocks such as quantum processors (>10qubits) with limited qubit overhead, control electronics, software stack, algorithms, applications, etc. Work should address the scalability towards large systems (>100 qubits), the verification and validation of the quantum computation, fault-tolerance and solving a concrete computational problem to demonstrate the quantum advantage. Projects should foresee benchmarking activities. Benchmarks will be identified by the CSA[[See item B. under this call topic.]] for all the platforms selected in this area.c. Quantum Simulation: Proposals should aim at delivering operational demonstrators, based on existing physical platforms that have shown a clear perspective to achieve more than 50 interacting quantum units and / or full local control. They should work towards demonstrating a certified quantum advantage for solving difficult scientific or industrial problems (e.g. material design, logistics, scheduling, machine learning, optimisation, artificial intelligence, drug discovery, etc.). The proposed solutions need to include the development of protocols, validation schemes and control, simulation software, system configuration and optimisation. Work should address the scalability towards larger systems with more qubits. Projects should foresee benchmarking activities related to real life applications. Benchmarks will be identified by the CSA[[See item B. under this call topic.]] for all the platforms selected in this area. Hybrid architectures are also to be considered under this area when relevant.d. Quantum Metrology and Sensing: Quantum sensors for specific application areas such as imaging, healthcare, geo-sciences, outdoor and indoor navigation, time or frequency, magnetic or electrical measurements, etc. … as well as novel measurement standards[[Measurement standards used in metrology for electrical quantities, mass, length, time, frequency, etc…]], making use of the advances in controlling the fundamental quantum properties. It is expected that the work will lead to practical sensing devices, imaging systems and quantum standards that employ quantum coherence and outperform classical counterparts (resolution, stability) targeting TRL 3 and 4 and showing potential for further miniaturisation/integration into industrial systems.e. Fundamental science: Research and development of basic theories and components, addressing a foundational challenge of relevance for the development of quantum technologies in at least one of the four areas a.-d. described above, to improve the performance of the components or subsystems targeted in those areas. Proposals must clearly indicate how they support a challenge for one or more of these areas.For areas a. to d., proposals should be based on a close cooperation between academia and industry, define output and impact KPIs[[KPI = Key Performance Indicator.]], include technology benchmarking against other approaches, and include user requirements.For areas a. to c. above, proposals should seek synergies with relevant national / regional research and innovation programmes running in these areas. They shall clearly specify how they are connected to the programmes and / or how they will incorporate the platforms, testbeds and infrastructures existing in Europe, how they will attract and build communities around them for openly promoting further technology developments as well as testing and benchmarking in the field and how they build on top of these to create European added value. Proposals combining different sources of financing should include a concrete financial plan detailing the use of these funding sources for the different parts of their activities.The Commission considers that proposals for Research and Innovation Actions of a 3-year duration and requesting a contribution from the EU up to EUR 10 million would allow the areas a. to d. to be addressed appropriately; and proposals requesting a contribution from the EU between EUR 2 and 3 million would allow the area e. to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals of another duration and/or requesting other amounts.When appropriate, proposals may provide financial support to third parties established in a EU member state or country associated with Horizon 2020 and in line with the conditions set out in General Annex K, for example to access specific expertise or infrastructure. The consortium will define the selection process of third parties for which financial support will be granted (with a maximum of EUR 100 000[[In line with Article 23 (7) of the Rules for Participation the amounts referred to in Article 137 of the Financial Regulation may be exceeded, since this is necessary to achieve the objectives of the action.]] per party). A maximum of 10% of the EU funding requested by the proposal should be allocated to this purpose.All projects shall make provisions to actively participate in the common activities of the Quantum Flagship and in particular: coordinate technical work with the other selected projects of the Flagship; and contribute to the activities of the Coordination and Support Action defined under item B. below.Note that special Grant Conditions will apply for projects granted under this topic. Please see under Call Conditions.B. Coordination and Support ActionProposals should aim at coordinating the relevant stakeholders, notably academia, RTOs and industry participating in the Flagship initiative. In particular, it is expected to establish a communication platform, facilitate dialogue, promote the objectives of the Flagship and monitor the progress, support the governance structure, organize outreach events (including addressing the impact of technology development on economy and society), identify training and education needs and promote European curricula in quantum engineering, identify and coordinate relevant standardisation, IPR actions, and international collaboration and help networking of respective national and international activities in the field. The action will also identify, together with the community, benchmarks for all communication/computing/simulation platforms selected under areas a. to c. of the Research and Innovation Actions described under item A. above.It is expected that such an activity is driven by the relevant actors of the field including academia, RTOs and industry.The Commission considers that proposals for Coordination and Support Actions requesting a contribution from the EU of up to EUR 2 million would allow this specific challenge to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts. To build a strongly networked European Quantum Technologies (QT) community around the common goals defined in the Strategic Research Agenda[[building on the Quantum Manifesto (http://qurope.eu/manifesto) the Commission Expert Group on Quantum Technologies – High Level Steering Committee has delivered on 28 June 2017 a first version of the Strategic Research Agenda in its final report (https://tinyurl.com/QT-HLSC-report).]]. To create the European ecosystem that will deliver the knowledge, technologies and open research infrastructures and testbeds necessary for the development of a world-leading knowledge-based industry in Europe, leading to long-term economic, scientific and societal benefits. To move advanced quantum technologies from the laboratory to industry with concrete prototype applications and marketable products while advancing at the same time the fundamental science basis, in order to continuously identify new applications and find better solutions for solving outstanding scientific or technology challenges. A. Research and Innovation Actions Contribute to the strategic objectives of the Flagship; Expand European leadership and excellence in quantum technologies; Scientific breakthroughs that form the basis for future technologies; Synergetic collaboration with existing European platforms and infrastructures; Kick-start a competitive European quantum industry; Availability of open platforms and infrastructures accessible to the European Quantum technologies Community. B. Coordination and Support Action A well-coordinated European initiative on Quantum Technologies, involving all relevant stakeholders and linked with relevant international, national and regional programmes, while assuring an efficient support to the governance of the Flagship; Spreading of excellence on Quantum Technologies across Europe, increased awareness of European activities and availability of European curricula in the field.