Network management planning and control & Mobility Management in a multimodal environment and Digital Enablers Action to be funded under this topic should research, develop, and deliver the following capabilities and/or any other relevant capability to achieve the aforementioned expected outcome:WS1: To improve strategic and tactical planning of the rail network developing solutions that enable by 2025:Enabler 1: European cross-border scheduling with international train path planning [TRL6/7]Enabler 2: Improved capacity allocation using rolling planning and TTR [TRL6/7]Enabler 3: Decision support for short term planning [TRL5/6]Enabler 4: Train path and schedule optimization methods and strategies for capacity efficiency, punctuality and energy saving for different parts of the network and different traffic situations (level of punctuality). [TRL5/6]Enabler 5: Improved rail traffic simulation models for selected Use Cases to forecast punctuality in the network (e.g. simulating proportion primary and secondary delays, simulations drivers vs. ATO over ETCS …) [Results from Shift2Rail activities should be taken into account, see PLASA-2 (https://projects.shift2rail.org/s2r_ipcc_n.aspx?p=plasa-2 ) D3.4 Smart planning: Approaches for simulation with incomplete data and FR8Rail II (https://projects.shift2rail.org/s2r_ip5_n.aspx?p=FR8RAIL%20ii ) D3.4 Demonstrator on Improved Planning Verification of Demonstrators]. [TRL6/7]Enabler 6: Integration of TMS with a) yard capacity planning and b) station capacity planning [TRL5/6]Enabler 7: New planning and operational processes using feedback loops from ERTMS ATO and C-DAS [TRL5/6]Developments on all those enablers should also cover important preparatory works with higher TRL for the future set of demonstration foreseen in the Multi- annual Work programme in view of the evolutions of the solutions.To increase resilience of a connected ‘real time’ rail network developing solutions that enable by 2025:Enabler 8: Real-time connection of rail networks as managed by TMSs and involved actors [TRL6/7]Enabler 9: Modelling and decision support for cross-border traffic management [TRL5/6]Enabler 10: Integration of TMS with a) yard management system and processes; b) station management system and processes; c) energy management (Electric Traction System); d) real-time crew / rolling stock dispatching [TRL6/7]Enabler 11: HMI for TMS based on User Experience (UX) Design and user input [TRL8]Enabler12: Real-time convergence between planning & feedback loop from operations [TRL4/5]Enabler 13: Cooperative planning multi-actors within rail [TRL4/5]Enabler 14: Integration of incident management and customer information, with IM and RU interaction and Decision Support for Disruption management [TRL4/5]Enabler 15: TMS speed regulation of trains, precise routes and target times for ATO and dynamic timetables [TRL4/5]Enabler 16: Automation of very short term[[time ahead of 0 in which a train controller cannot implement control decisions manually; usually a couple of minutes]] train control decisions [TRL5]Enabler 17: Real-time conflict detection & resolution [Results from Shift2Rail activities should be taken into account, see X2Rail-4 (https://projects.shift2rail.org/s2r_ip2_n.aspx?p=X2RAIL-4 ) D8.1 Functional Specification of Processes] for main line and optimisation [TRL4/5]Developments on all those enablers should also cover important preparatory works with higher TRL for the future set of demonstration foreseen in the Multi- annual Work programme in view of the evolutions of the solutions.To integrate rail traffic within door-to-door mobility developing solutions that enable by 2025:Enabler 18: Improved rail integration using B2B intermodal services: cross-operator information sharing on e.g. sales and distribution, traffic information, end-user experience, … [TRL6/7]Enabler 19: Harmonized interfaces between rail operators and other transport modes, leveraging existing European standards when applicable to enhance collaboration between mobility providers and support B2B integration including the objective to deliver an enhanced end-user experience [TRL7/8]Enabler 20: PRM information sharing between rail operators and other transport modes (e.g. information on connections) for assistive digital tools [For reference, past S3R activities are linked to TD4.5 https://projects.shift2rail.org/s2r_ip_TD_r.aspx?ip=4&td=5f96fb11-4686-474e-a403-abf50108fb0d]. [TRL4/5]Enabler 21: Hands free solutions for travellers using rail services and transferring between operators and mobility modes leveraging newest technologies (e.g. WiFi roaming, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Ultra Wide Band (UWB), 5G, Face recognition…) [For reference, past S3R activities are linked to TD4.5 https://projects.shift2rail.org/s2r_ip_TD_r.aspx?ip=4&td=5f96fb11-4686-474e-a403-abf50108fb0d].[TRL7/8]Enabler 22: Innovative platform-based passenger guidance solution, measurement and guidance of customer flows to and on the platform [TRL4/5]Enabler 23: Short term demand forecast calculation using run time data (e.g. ticketing data, short term weather forecast, passenger density, ….) [TRL6/7]Enabler 24: Long term demand forecast with focus on data analytics based on a variety of sources (e.g. public events, holiday calendar) and operators’ data (e.g. fare, passenger density data) and historical information for predictive models related to passenger clustering [For reference, past S3R activities are linked to .6 https://projects.shift2rail.org/s2r_ip_TD_r.aspx?ip=4&td=fe8a122e-657a-4a8b-b44a-e7a269c7e491] [TRL4/5]Enabler 25: Integrated traffic simulation and demand forecast in a Digital Twin to optimize offer, passenger occupancy, connection time and other service-related elements [TRL4/5]Enabler 26: Optimized rail capacity to better match the demand: Synergy between short term and long term forecast (e.g. weather forecast for an airport line) combined with Digital Twins in order to provide optimization guidance [TRL4/5]Enabler 27: Disruption management across different mobility modes enabling operators to collaboratively solve the disruption and properly inform passengers [TRL6/7]Developments on all those enablers should also cover important preparatory works with higher TRL for the future set of demonstration foreseen in the Multi- annual Work programme in view of the evolutions of the solutions.In addition to the capabilities and enables listed above, Cyber protection of systems and data also needs to be provided.WS2: Connectors for Federated Data Spaces, TRL6 by 2025A need for federated data spaces to make all heterogeneous data available to specialized digital applications in multiple domains while a) allowing incremental extensions and avoiding the rigidity of synchronized and centralized deployment timelines and b) providing data owners with the ability to retain control of their assets.A federated data space is a distributed secure and reliable data sharing and communication infrastructure enabling data federation, access and processing services through standardized interfaces. Incremental extensions of the federated data space are achieved by new devices and systems using the exposed services to add themselves to the federation as they become available, while data asset protection by their owners is achieved by each participant implementing their own data access policies at the interface between their system and the federated dataspace. Connectors using these interfaces must be developed for existing or legacy/proprietary systems to participate in the federation. The sequence of successive federations must take into account the dependencies identified in Annex B between Destinations.Common Domain Ontology, building upon S2R works on Conceptual Data Model (CDM), TRL 6 by 2025High quality data and its accessibility is key to the success of the next generation of railway application and services. Therefore, data does not only need to be of high semantic quality, but also has to be specified by a standardized high quality syntax. Not only shall the underlaying concepts and principles of the CDM be respected, but they shall also take advantage of the work produced in LinX4Rail [Results from Shift2Rail activities should be taken into account, see LinX4Rail project (https://projects.shift2rail.org/s2r_ipx_n.aspx?p=LINX4RAIL) D2.3 Final version of the dictionary] and further develop the coverage, add additional value and to make use of it using fully interoperable Digital Twins in syntax and semantics. Based on the alignment with other Destinations.Digital Twin support, development and execution environment, TRL5 by 2025As a virtual representation able to imitate the behaviour of a physical system, a Digital Twin is a software implementation of a structural and behavioural model of the represented system. A development environment for Digital Twins shall be composed of standard modelling tools, editors, compilers and debuggers used by specialists to create self-contained, compiled functional mock-up units (FMUs). Searchable libraries of FMUs are also part of the Digital Twin development environment, used to implement higher level FMUs as compositions of submodels through standardized interfaces.Compiled FMUs are deployed to an interoperable Digital Twin execution environment in which models are initialized with data obtained from the federated dataspace through the dataspace services, and simulations runs are performed to generate the projected behaviour of the imitated physical system.The action shall actively contribute to measure and monitor the specific quantitative KPIs defined in the Destination description above, including its contribution to the Europe’s Rail Master Plan impacts.The action shall actively contribute to the EU-Rail standardisation rolling development plans wherever relevant. Similarly, the action shall contribute to the development and implementation of EU policy and legislation including Technical Specifications for Interoperability and Common Safety Methods, as well as to publications of the System Pillar.Collaboration work required with other DestinationsThe required collaboration work with other Destinations should foresee the following in order to ensure consistency on expectations and a coordinated implantation:Developing deliverable(s) capturing specific requirements and delivery schedules described in the Expected scope and relevant for the action to be funded under Destination 2, Destination 3, Destination 4, Destination 5 and Destination 6, suggested to be delivered indicatively by M6.Common activities/tasks related to the review of system specifications to be developed by the action to be funded under Destination 2, Destination 3, Destination 4, Destination 5 and Destination 6.For WS1 only, a common activity/task related to the Preparatory works on the integration and pilot test(s) of the technical enablers to be provided by the actions to be funded under Destination 2, Destination 3 and Destination 4 and Destination 5 for the demonstration to be carried out in the action to be funded by Destination 1, Destination 2, Destination 3, Destination 4, Destination 5 and Destination 6. Interaction with the System Pillar The System Pillar aims to guide, support and secure the work of the Innovation Pillar (i.e. to ensure that research is targeted on commonly agreed and shared customer requirements and operational needs, compatible and aligned to the system architecture), and the Innovation Pillar will impact the scope of the System Pillar where new technologies or processes mean that innovations can drive a change in approach, as well as delivering detailed specifications and requirements.In this respect, the proposal should allocate necessary resources that would be dedicated to areas linked to the System Pillar conceptual and architecture works – particularly addressing specification development (the interaction is illustrated in the System Pillar – Innovation Pillar interaction note (Annex VI of this Work Programme). The alignment of the activities will primarily take place during the Grant Preparation Phase and ramp up phase of the awarded proposal, and there will be continued, structured and regular interaction through the life of the project.Gender dimension In this topic the integration of the gender dimension (sex and gender analysis) in research and innovation content is not a mandatory requirement.