The aim is to foster the development of innovative societies and policies in Europe through the engagement of citizens, civil society organisations, enterprises and users in research and innovation and the promotion of coordinated research and innovation policies in the context of globalisation and the need to promote the highest ethical standards. Particular support will be provided for the development of the ERA and the development of framework conditions for innovation. Cultural and societal knowledge is a major source of creativity and innovation, including business, public sector and social innovation. In many cases social and user-led innovations also precede the development of innovative technologies, services and economic processes. The creative industries are a major resource to tackle societal challenges and for competitiveness. As interrelations between social and technological innovation are complex, and rarely linear, further research, including cross-sectoral and multidisciplinary research, is needed into the development of all types of innovation and activities funded to encourage its effective development into the future. The focus of activities shall be to: (a) strengthen the evidence base and support for the flagship initiative "Innovation Union" and ERA; (b) explore new forms of innovation, with special emphasis on social innovation and creativity, and understand how all forms of innovation are developed, succeed or fail; (c) make use of the innovative, creative and productive potential of all generations; (d) promote coherent and effective cooperation with third countries.