A Commission proposal for a Council Decision adopting the second phase of the trans-European cooperation scheme for higher education TEMPUS II, 1994-1998 (COM (920 407 of 1.10.1992) sets out the objectives and structure of the programme for a period of four years as of 1 July 1994. TEMPUS II shall concern the countries of central and eastern Europe designated as eligible for economic aid by Regulation EEC/3906/89 and the Republics of the former Soviet Union as defined in Regulation EEC/Euratom/2157/91. Participation shall be decided by the national authorities in agreement with the Commission in the context of the national programming of Community assistance for economic reform. Objectives of the programme are: To promote the structural development and to facilitate the adaptation of higher education systems in the eligible countries; to help address specific manpower and skill shortages during economic reform; to promote exchanges of young people between the Community and the eligible countries. Implementation of TEMPUS II will be by means of Joint European Projects (JEPs), of up to three years duration, linking universities and/or enterprises in eligible countries with partners in the Community (these will comprise at least one university from an eligible country, one university from a Member State and one partner university or enterprise from another Member State). Projects may be linked to existing networks (notably those within ERASMUS, COMETT or LINGUA) or to other assistance programmes. Student/staff mobility will be supported. Individual grants will be made available to teachers, trainers, university administrators, senior Ministry officials, education planners and other training experts for a number of activities (short visits, teaching/training assignments, practical placements in enterprises or education authorities, and for the retraining and updating of university staff. Grants will also be supported for participation in the activities of European associations, to facilitate information activities, for assistance in the reform and development of higher education and training, and for projects involving youth activities and exchanges. The necessary technical assistance will be provided to the Commission to undertake these activities, including the coordination of monitoring procedures.