Professor Eberhard Jochem, vice-chair of the Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), has handed a memorandum signed by more than 100 concerned European climate scientists to the United States embassy in Berlin. The memorandum urges President Bush to re-consider his decision on the Kyoto Protocol and says: 'We are deeply concerned about your decision not to recommend ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by the United states of America.' It highlights the recently published Third assessment report of the IPCC, which concluded that the global climate is already changing due to man-made emissions of greenhouse gases. The memorandum also pointed to the extremely long time constants regarding removal of CO2 from the atmosphere and the dangers of climate change. 'The increase in average surface temperatures, in storm intensity and precipitation will bring about severe damage to many countries from droughts, crop losses, flooding of highly populated areas and fertile river deltas, and spread of disease; and that these changes are likely to cause substantial migrations and social stresses in many regions of the world.' The memorandum goes on: 'Given these facts, there is no alternative to concerted and early action. Even from the economic point of view it does not make sense to wait because there is great profitable potential in the many mitigation options.'