A Commission proposal for a Council Decision on a Framework Programme of Community activities in the field of research and training for the European Atomic Energy Community, 1994-1998 (COM(93)276 of 17.6.1993) proposes that the Programme shall include all activities regarding research, technological development, international cooperation, dissemination and optimization of results, as well as training, in the fields of nuclear safety and safeguards and of controlled thermonuclear fusion. The total overall Community appropriation estimated necessary for the period 1994-1998 is ECU 1,475 million, of which ECU 495 million is dedicated to nuclear safety and safeguards and ECU 980 million to controlled thermonuclear fusion. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is to be allocated ECU 343 million drawn from this total, representing ECU 293 million for JRC research activities in nuclear safety and safeguards and ECU 50 million for controlled thermonuclear fusion. With regard to nuclear safety and safeguards, the objective is to ensure the safety of all nuclear activities whatever they are (the production of electricity from fission, the use of radioactivity or ionizing radiation, or the presence of natural radioactivity). It is considered necessary to consolidate the nuclear option by demonstrating an ability to control it in all areas of application. This demonstration is to be sought via four priority routes: - The development of a dynamic approach to nuclear safety contributing to the consolidation of a world level "safety culture"; - The joint use of the large European facilities to arrive at a better understanding of the crucial phenomena linked to the nuclear fuel cycle and waste; - Pursuit of the development of control techniques for nuclear safety; - The integration of radiological protection into a global system for protection of man and the environment. In the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion, the long term objective of Community action, embracing all activities undertaken in all Member States plus Sweden and Switzerland, is the creation of safe, environmentally sound prototype magnetic confinement reactors. The long time span and the large human and financial effort required to reach this objective make necessary a total cohesion of the network of organizations associated in the Community action, as well as the full exploitation of the cooperation with the large fusion programmes outside the Community. Safety and environmental issues will play a central role in the realization of the large devices included in the strategy envisaged for moving towards a prototype reactor. The 1994-1998 objectives comprise three themes of activity: - To complete the engineering design of an experimental reactor, "Next Step" in the frame of the ITER agreement (Euratom, Japan, the Russian Federation and Japan); - To improve concepts in plasma physics and engineering for the subsequent step (a demonstration reactor); - Research focusing on the long term technology essential for progressing towards the exploitation of fusion as an energy source. At the same time, the synergy between research and training will be developed. The mobility of scientists is to be increased, in particular in the framework of consortia for integrated actions, grouping several Associations on joint projects. Annexes to the proposal set out the selection criteria for Community activities in these fields, the scientific and technical objectives of the two programmes plus rules for Community financial participation.
Policy making and guidelines
5 March 1992