The Commission and the Council concluded an Agreement on extensive cooperation between the EU and Poland on 13 December 1993. The Agreement recognizes the strength of the relationship between Poland and the EU and will allow Poland to take part in the process of European integration. It is also a further indication of the European Union's willingness to set up instruments of cooperation and economic, technical and financial assistance with the countries of Eastern Europe. Cooperation in science and technology will include the following: - The exchange of scientific and technological, information, including information on science and technology policies; - Joint R&D activities aimed at encouraging scientific progress and the transfer of technology and know-how; - Training activities and mobility programmes for researchers and specialists from both sides; - The development of an environment conducive to research and the application of new technologies, with adequate protection of the intellectual property of the results of research; - Participation in the Community research programmes; - Provision of technical assistance. Energy cooperation will centre on areas including: - Modernization of infrastructure; - Improvement and diversification of supply; - Formulation and planning of energy policy; - Management of training in the energy sector; - The promotion of energy saving and energy efficiency; - The environmental impact of energy production and consumption; Cooperation in the nuclear field will cover the following topics: - Upgrading nuclear law and regulation in Poland; - Nuclear safety, nuclear emergency preparedness and accident management; - Radiation protection, including environmental radiation monitoring; - Fuel cycle problems, safety and physical protection of nuclear materials; - Radioactive waste management; - Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations; - Decontamination. The EU and Poland will also develop and strengthen their mutual cooperation in combating the deterioration of the environment, which is a priority. Environmental cooperation is to include: - Effective monitoring of pollution levels; - Combating regional and transnational air and water pollution; - Efficient energy production and consumption, safety of industrial plants; - Classification and safe handling of chemicals; - Water quality, particularly of cross-boundary waterways; - Waste reduction, recycling and safe disposal; - Implementation of the Basel Convention; - The environmental impact of agriculture, soil erosion, and the protection of forests and flora and fauna; - Land-use planning, including construction and urban planning; - Use of economic and fiscal instruments; - Global climate change. In this area cooperation will take the following form: - Exchange of information and experts, including information and experts dealing with the transfer of clean technologies; - Training programmes; - Approximation of laws (Community standards); - Cooperation at regional level including cooperation within the framework of the European Environment Agency, when established by the Community; - Development of strategies, particularly with regard to global and climatic issues. The consequence of cooperation in the area of transport should enable Poland to: - Restructure and modernize it's transport systems; - Facilitate the movement of passengers and goods and improve access to the transport market by removing administrative, technical and other obstacles; - Achieve operating standards comparable to those in the Community. Measures in this regard will include economic, legal and technical training programmes together with the provision of technical assistance and advice, and the exchange of information (conferences and seminars). Priority will be given to road transport, the management of railways and airports, the modernization, on major routes of common interest and trans-European links, infrastructure, the upgrading of technical equipment to meet Community standards, particularly in the fields of road-rail transport and trans-shipment, and the setting-up of consistent transport policies compatible with those of the EU. In the area of telecommunications, Poland and the EU will expand and strengthen cooperation and will launch the following initiatives: - Exchange of information on telecommunications policies; - Exchange of technical and other information and organization of seminars, workshops and conferences for experts of both sides; - Conduct training and advisory operations; - Carry out transfers of technology; - Have the appropriate bodies from both sides carry out joint projects; - Promote European standards, systems of certification and regulatory approaches; - Promote new communications, services and facilities, particularly those with commercial applications.